- Excessive size both in population and geographical area
- Where the economic base of the cities is inadequate to cope with problems created by excessive size
- Too many people occupying too little space and competing for too few services and jobs
Urban Expansion and Loss of Agriculture land
- Tremendous amount of land being gobbled up by sprawl of cites, especially giant conurbation.
- The loss of agriculture land to urban/industrial sprawl is of grave concern.
- Once loss this prime land cannot be replaced.
Shortage of urban Services
- With too many people in the cities, Government are hard pressed to provide All the human services that are the residence would like or expect
- Housing shortage occur worldwide
- Typically, it is the poorest people who suffer the most
- Other basic services Such as piped sewage system hot and cold running water, decent telephone services, reliable city supply, adequate garbage disposal systems.
- Educational, Health care and recreational system and facilities.
Slum and Squatter Settlements
- Slum are the area of authorized, usually older housing.
- While squatter settlements are that unauthorized on land which the squatter do not owns.
- The area of tends to lack the essential services of an urban environment such as sewage, water and lighting.
- As a result, Squatter settlements commonly are areas of health problems
- Traffic congestion is a service dilemma that is choking many cities to a standstill in term of movement of people and goods within the cities, with extremely seriously consequences of wastage of resources (Time and energy of people).
Un-employment and under employment
- Employment probably top most people lists of serious urban problem.
- Hundreds, even thousands of young people may apply for handful of job in a particular company.
- The lucky ones may infect, end up with a job that is below their capability, in effect under-employment.
Social and Racial Issues
- Unemployment and underemployment along with other factors, breed a variety of subsidiary problems related to racial and social issues.
- These vary from region to region.
- Pollution of air and water, excessive noise levels, the uglification of the landscape through lack of planning and urban poverty is another serious worldwide problem.
- In MDCs people and government are doing something about it.
- Thus, in general the degree of urban degradation is most severe today in cities of LDC.The cities with greatest air pollution
Improper sewage disposal contaminated city drinking water which triggered epidemics:
- Typhoid Fever
Flushed toilets and sewer systems existed by 1870’s but pollution remained due to;
- Horse Waste in the streets:
- Smoke from Chimneys
- Soot and ash from coal and wood fires
- A new political system is needed to cope with the new urban problems
- Political Machines – informal political group that would provide essential city services in exchange for votes and political power
- Offered things like – jobs, housing, food, heat and security
- Party bosses would accept bribes from contractors
- Some dominated police department
- Sold permits to friends to operate public facilities such as railroads, waterworks, and power systems
- Example – A politician would find out where the city was planning to build a park – then buy the land and sell it to the city for a profit.