Feb 26, 2016

Feb 26, 2016

Feb 26, 2016

- Feb 05, 2019

## River Mechanics

River Mechanics is basically the behavior of the river to different natural and man made phenomena, how rivers are formed and analysis of river mechanics is based on the concept of water and sediment transport down to the rivers by the action of gravity from up land portion of the ocean. The course contents are:
- Feb 04, 2019

## Design Optimization of Hydraulic Penstock

Design optimization is the selection of most efficient and cost effective diameter of Penstock, taking in to account its cost and benefits. Optimization is the application of mathematical tools and techniques to an engineering sector that will enable the concerned people to select the most optimum option. In hydropower
- Feb 04, 2019

## Design of Earthen Channels - Lacey's Regime Theory

The success and efficiency of the irrigation system depends how efficiently and carefully canal network has been designed, these canals may be constructed through different types of soil such as: Alluvial soil, Non-alluvial soil etc. Thus the design criteria for earthen channels depends on the type of soil in which canal is going to be constructed such as:
- Feb 04, 2019

## Turbine Layout and Sizing

The layout and sizing of the hydraulic turbine and corresponding generating units can be calculated using different computation programs, United States Bureau Reclamation (USBR) manual, Corps of Engineers manuals, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) guidelines for
- Feb 04, 2019

## Hydraulic Design of Surge Shaft

Surge shaft is a structure provided at the end of headrace tunnel or pipe to account for water hammering effect in the pipe at its downstream. Surge shaft is considered to be an important component of Hydropower projects, especially for those involving headrace pressure tunnels.

## Headrace Pressure Flow in Steel Pipes

Headrace pipe can also serve the same function as that of Headrace tunnels, depending upon the site location, geological and topographical constraints. as discussed earlier that tunnels can be divided into two types on the basis of type of flow
- Nov 14, 2017

## Types of Canal Lining - PCC, RCC, Brick Lining

This lining is recommended for the canal in full banking. The cement concrete lining is widely accepted. It can resist the effect of scouring and erosion very efficiently. The velocity of flow may be kept above 2.5 m/s. It can eliminate completely growth of weeds. The lining is done by the following steps: (a) Preparation of sub-grade, (b) Laying of concrete
- Nov 12, 2017

## Irrigation Efficiency - Definition and Its Types

The ratio of the amount of water available (output) to the amount of water supplied (input) is known as Irrigation Efficiency. It is expressed in percentage. The following are the various types of irrigation efficiencies: (a) Water Conveyance Efficiency: (ηc). (b) Water Application Efficiency: (ηa). (c) Water Use Efficiency (ηu): (d) Consumptive use Efficiency (ηcu):
- Oct 14, 2017

## Methods of Improving and Factors Affecting Duty of Water

If the soil of the canal bed is porous and coarse grained, it leads to more seepage loss and consequently low duty. If it consists of alluvial soil, the percolation loss will be less and the soil retains the moisture for longer period and consequently the duty will be high.... When the
- Aug 31, 2017

Advantages of lined canals: Avoiding excessive loss of water due to seepage, To avoid erosion, To avoid water logging of adjacent lands due to seepage, To reduce flow resistance, To help in control of weeds aquatic growth, To provide needed side slope stability
- Aug 31, 2017

## Sources of Irrigation Water - Ground Water & Surface Water

It is found on the surface of the land. These include spring water, River water, lake water, etc. This can be supplied to the field by weir (check dam) by gravity or by using pump. Check dam /weir/ system is used only when the source of water is from river, or spring water that
- Jun 09, 2017

## Definition, Types & Comparison of Open & Pipe Flow

It is usually the flow in an Open Channels Surface Flow: The flow which is above the ground level is called surface flow. Ground Flow: The flow which is below the surface of the earth is called ground flow. Open channel flow is not completely enclosed by boundaries, unlike pipe flow. Open channel is always under the action of gravity, while pipe can be under gravity
- Jun 09, 2017

## Shapes, Types & Properties of Open Channels

Open channel can be said to be as the deep hollow surface having usually the top surface open to atmosphere. Open channel flow can be said to be as the flow of fluid (water) over the deep hollow surface (channel) with the cover of atmosphere on the top. Examples of open channels flow are river, streams, flumes, sewers, ditches and lakes etc. we can be said to be as
- May 31, 2017

## Management of Water Logging & Salinity in Pakistan

The irrigation system in Pakistan has brought great benefits to many people. Dependence on the natural hydrological system has been minimized and new settlements in canal irrigated areas have been established. However, the canal system has been accompanied by problems, which are increasingly difficult to overcome. Water logging and salinity are two of
- May 20, 2017

## Methods of Estimation of Consumptive Use of Water

To measure or estimation the consumptive use there are two main methods: Direct Methods/Field Methods Empirical Methods Pan evaporation method. In this method of estimation of water consumptive use, soil moisture measurements are taken before and after each irrigation.