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Feb 26, 2016 / Haseeb Jamal -

5 Travel Myths You Need to Stop Believing Right Now

Feb 26, 2016 / Haseeb Jamal -

Canal Comes Alive with Lighted Boat Parade.

What is Consumptive Use of Water and Factors Affecting it

It is the quantity of water used by the vegetation growth of a given area. It is the amount of water required by a crop for its vegetated growth to evapotranspiration and building of plant tissues plus evaporation from soils and intercepted precipitation. It is expressed in terms of depth of water. Consumptive use varies with temperature, humidity, wind speed,

Definition and Types of Cross Drainage Works

A cross drainage work is a structure carrying the discharge from a natural stream across a canal intercepting the stream. Canal comes across obstructions like rivers, natural drains and other canals. The various types of structures that are built to carry the canal water across the above

Introduction & History of Irrigation Engineering

Irrigation is the controlled application of water to croplands. Its primary objective is to create an optimal soil moisture regime for maximizing crop production and quality while at the same time minimizing the environmental degradation inherent in irrigation of agricultural lands. Irrigation is thus critical for food security in semi-arid and arid areas. Irrigation has two

Water Resources of Pakistan and Hydraulic Structures in Pakistan

According to the United Nations' "UN World Water Development Report", the total actual renewable water resources decreased from 2,961 m³ per capita in 2000 to 1,420 m³ per capita in 2005. A more recent study indicates an available supply of water of little more than 1,000 m³ per person, which puts Pakistan in the category of a high stress country. In view of a growing

Crop Water Requirement in Irrigation and Evaluation of Water Losses

It is defined as, "The quantity of water required by a crop in a given period of time for normal growth under field conditions." It includes evaporation and other unavoidable wastes. Usually water requirement for crop is expressed in water depth per unit area. The first thing you need to

Importance of Irrigation Engineering - Purposes, Objectives and Benefits

In the next 35-45- years, world food production will need to double to meet the demands of increased population. 90% of this increased food production will have to come from existing lands. 70% of this increased food production will have to come from irrigated land

Evapotranspiration Measurement by Blaney Criddle & Hargreaves

The estimation of potential evapotranspiration is achieved by adopting empirical approaches, such as the Thornthwaite equation, the Blaney-Criddle formula and the Hargreaves method, all having as a requirement the availability of temperature data. The data set is made up of temperature time series, obtained

Methods & Techniques of Irrigation

The pressurized systems include sprinkler, trickle, and the array of similar systems in which water is conveyed to and distributed over the farmland through pressurized pipe networks. There are many individual system configurations identified by unique features (centre-pivot sprinkler systems). 2. Gravity Flow Irrigation Systems convey and distribute water at the field

Choice and Selection of Irrigation Methods

The type of irrigation system selected is an important economic decision. Some types of pressurized systems have high capital and operating costs but may utilize minimal labour and conserve water. Their use tends toward high value cropping patterns. Other systems are relatively less expensive to construct and operate but have high labour requirements. Some

Types of Tube Wells and Design of Strainer for Tube Wells

In design, find its length, slot size, opening area, diameter and material requirements Corrosion resistant Strong enough to prevent collapse Prevent excessive movement of sand into well Materials used for Tube Well Construction Zinc free brass Stainless steel Low carbon steel High copper alloy

Advantages and Disadvantages of Surface Irrigation Methods

Surface irrigation is the introduction and distribution of water in a field by the gravity flow of water over the soil surface. The soil acts as the growing medium in which water is stored and the conveyance medium over which water flows as it spreads and infiltrates. Common surface irrigation systems used are rill irrigation, furrow or border irrigation. The term 'surface

Construction of Water Wells

A water well is a lot more than a drilled hole, but for many people, the above ground part of the drilling process is the only part they see. A water well is a specially engineered hole in the ground; For ground water monitoring, or for scientific research purposes, wells may be drilled in a way that allows the specialists to closely examine the rock formations and take

Types of Strainers in Wells

Following are the types of strainers used in water wells: Cook strainer Browlie Ashford Leggett Phoenix Layne and brownlie

Design Of Non Erodible Channels

The Initial dimensions of a channel are determined by uniform flow or manning formula. But final dimensions are determined on the basis of 1. Hydraulic efficiency 2. Empirical rule of the best section. 3. Practicability And Economy

Causes, Importance And Prediction of Flood

Flood is a natural even which has always been an integral part of geological history of earth. It occurs along rivers, streams and lacks. Most of the hydraulic are designed on flood record. Small hydraulic structures are based on a minimum of 25 years flood records e.g all structure constructed in the canal, soil conservation practices etc. Large irrigation projects are based on 100

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