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Scope, Benefits and Problems in Environmental Impact Assessment

The study of EIA effectiveness shows a number of difficulties and constraints, generally although not universally applicable, that continue to prevent and hinder EIA from consistently delivering these advantages and benefits:

What is Environmental Impact Assessment and its Objectives

An environment impact Assessment is an event or effect, which results from a prior event. It can be described as the change in an environmental parameter, over a specific period and within a defined area, resulting from a particular activity compared with the situation which would have occurred had the activity not been initiated.

Environmental Impacts of Dams

In this way, serious accidents can occur: the dams are only built to withstand a certain amount of water pressure; with the pressure from the sediment in some time the wall either explodes or water is caused to go above the dam, creating a waterfall; in both cases, a lot of organisms, including humans are in great danger. Dams are created in order to change the currents

Environmental Impact of Ordinary Portland Cement

There are lots of environmental impacts of Cement on our ecology. One of the major problems is emission of CO2 from the Cement industry. It is found that world yearly 1.6 billion tons production of cement covers 7% of carbon dioxide's yearly production. As CO2 is harmful for human health and also for the wild life. It causes many respiratory problems like asthma, bronchitis, and nasal infections.

Structural Design Criteria for Coastal Structures

Coastal structures are the structures that are constructed near to the coastal areas for different purposes. Different types of coastal structures are constructed under different circumstances but the criteria to be used for the selection and design of specific type of coastal structure must be authentic and comply with the standards.

Impact of Indian Dams in Kashmir on Pakistani Rivers

Pakistan is an agricultural country. Eighty percent of its agricultural output comes from the Indus Basin. Pakistan has one of the world's largest canal systems built much before Independence by the British. On April 1, 1948, India stopped the supply of water to Pakistan from every canal flowing from India to Pakistan. Pakistan protested and India finally agreed on an interim

Impact of Small Hydropower Projects

Renewable energy can make a significant contribution to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction. It should be accepted that although through having no emissions of CO2 and other pollutants, electricity production in small hydro plants is environmentally rewarding, the fact is that due to their location in sensitive areas, local impacts are not always negligible.

Factors Affecting Stability of Road Pavements

The thickness of pavements depends on a number of variables, but from experience it has been found that the following factors affect the performance of pavements to a great extent. Traffic Factors, Soil Factors, Environmental Factors, Stress Distribution Factors.. Traffic is the most important factor in the pavement design. The key factors include contact pressure

Design and Construction of Itaipu Dam

Itaipu dam is the world's most powerful dam built in Brazil in 1984.In 1994, the American Society of Civil Engineers selected the Itaipu Dam as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World. It was supposed to generate 90,000 Giga Watts of electricity each year. In 2000, the generating capacity of Itaipu reached 93.4 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh), which supplied 93% of the energy

Causes of Dam Failure

At least 20% of the world ’s more than 9 000 fresh water fish species have become extinct, threatened or endangered in recent years. The watersheds of the world are the habitat of 40% of the world’s fish species, and provide many ecosystem functions ranging from nutrient recycling and water purification to soil replenishment and flood control.

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