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Tunnels in Dams - Advantages and Application

The type of intake structure depends on its location and function and on the various appurtenances, such as fish-screens, trashracks, stoplog arrangements, or operating platforms that must be furnished. A means for dissipating the energy of flow before returning the discharge to the river should normally be provided. This can be accomplished by a flip bucket

Tunnel Engineering | Methods of Tunneling and Hazards

Tunnel, passage, gallery, or roadway beneath the ground or underwater. Tunnels are used for highway traffic, railways, and subways; to transport water, sewage, oil, and gas; to divert rivers around dam sites while the dam is being built; and for military and civil-defense purposes. Subterranean galleries are a series of horizontal passageways on different levels, as in

Factors Affecting Construction of Tunnels

Tunnels are constructed To avoid the expensive acquisition of valuable built up land, tearing up pavements and holding up traffic for long periods in large cities. When the depth of ordinary cutting exceeds 20m and the ground rises rapidly for a considerable distance after wards. To avoid the excessive cost of maintenance of an open cut subjected to land slides or snow

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