It is the distribution or division of land (in town planning) into particular zones based upon some criteria or principles.
Principles of zoning
The principles of zoning include the following elements which are given importance while zoning an area.
- Concentric growth
- Existing towns
- New towns
a. Concentric growth
The usual pattern of zones is in the form of concentric bands. The central area of town is followed by developed area, green area & undeveloped area.
The growth of buildings spreads from a center in all directions is called concentric growth. These types of buildings usually form a ring and consists of residential buildings surrounded by commercial areas. This type of growth is natural and totally unplanned. When the population goes on increase, the concentric circles are again surrounded by people - these areas are called the suburbs of the city.
The design of boundaries for different zones should be carefully made. The boundaries should be a street, road, railway line, park or open green space. Boundaries are the important element in zoning. Usually the boundaries between two zones can be road, railway line, river, a wall or a green belt. Green belt is preferred to all others. The existence of boundaries depends on the rule of law. Sometimes boundaries are broken and two zones seem to mix. This type of area is then called transition zone.
c. Existing towns
While zoning and planning new towns, the planner must keep in mind the convenience of existing towns. Zoning should be done in such a way so as not to disturb the ecosystem of the already existing towns.
The principles of zoning may be rigidly enforced.but at the same time, care should be taken to observe flexibility in working out the details for zoning. The zoning of an area should be as such so as to provide maximum comfort and convenience to people. Zoning should also be done in such a way that in future new towns can be made and there is room for expansion of the zone.
e. New towns
For designing a new town of known population the areas required for residence,industries, business are clearly marked. The town is then divided in to suitable zones. New towns should be provided room for in zoning of site. For designing a new town of known population the areas required for residence, industries & businesses are clearly marked. The town is then divided in to suitable zones.