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Civil Engineering Surveying

The process of determining by measurement, the relative positions of points above, on, or beneath the earth surface, in order to produce map or plan (which shows feature of the surface) in horizontal or vertical plane. The Term surveying refers to those measurements or operation, which deal in production of map or plan in horizontal plane.

Common Definitions in Surveying

Levelling is the most widely used method of obtaining the elevations of ground points relative to a reference datum and is usually carried out as a separate procedure to those used in fixing planimetric position.

Levelling in Engineering Survey

Levelling is the most widely used method of obtaining the elevations of ground points relative to a reference datum and is usually carried out as a separate procedure to those used in fixing planimetric position.

Scale and Distortion of a Vertical Photograph

The scale of the photograph is expressed as a representative fraction. (A scale having the importance that we can take it in any unit). Knowing the height of the airplanes above the datum and the focal length of the camera.

Levelling Tools & Equipment

The vertical measuring equipment in surveying are major summed into two but other instruments still exist. The two major ones are: Measurement by surveying levels Barometric – pressure devices

How to do Photogrammetry

Photographic surveying is a method of surveying in which plans or maps are prepared from photographic taken at suitable camera stations or photographic is the science of making measurement from photographs.

Distance Measuring Equipment

The chain tape is also referred to as the Günter’s chain. Gunter’s chain, the 300 –year-old measuring instrument by which all survey measurement in the English – speaking countries and much of it elsewhere was done. It has been superseded by the steel tape and electronic equipment. Gunter’s chain is 66 feet long; 80 chain equal to one mile, and 10 square chains equals

Horizontal and Vertical Curves in Surveying

Curves are provided whenever a road changes its direction from right to S (vice versa) or changes its alignment from up to down (vice versa). Curves are a critical! element in the pavement design. They are provided with a maximum speed limit that should lie followed very strictly. Following the speed limit becomes essential as the exceed in speed may lead to the chances of

Curvature and Refraction

The earth appears to “fall away” with distance. The curved shape of the earth means that the level surface through the telescope will depart from the horizontal plane through the telescope as the line of sight proceeds to the horizon.

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