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Types of Chains and Tapes in Civil Survey

Following are the various types of chain in common use: Metric chains Steel band or Band chain Gunter's chain or surveyors chain Engineers chain Revenue chain Metric chains are made in lengths 20m and 30m. Tallies are fixed at every five-meter length and brass rings are provided at every meter length except where tallies are attached. Length = 66’ (22 yards), No of links = 100

Maintenance of Surveying Equipment - Routine Care and Transportation

Surveying equipment is being used under most stressful conditions. The equipment is exposed to extreme weather conditions, used in dusty construction areas and is subject to bumpy transportation. Proper care in the method by which equipment is used, stored, transported, and adjusted is a major factor in the successful completion of the survey. Lack of good

Measurements in Surveying

In Surveying all measurements are horizontal, can be inclined; reduce to horizontal and vertical components in plotting. Distance between 2 points on a plan or map is always horizontal distance irrespective of their elevation,(distance between their projection on horizontal plane). How are these Measured and which instrument should I use? Distances (Horizontal):

Direction Measuring Equipment in Surveying

Box compasses must be used with angle – measuring instruments, as the compasses operate only when the line of sight points towards magnetic north. The bearing desired must then be measured from his direction. Circular compasses can be mounted on theodolites and are often permanently mounted on transits. When provided with open sights, they can be used

Baseline Measurement and Equipments Used

In triangulation the base line is of prime importance because it is the only horizontal distance to be measured. It should be measured very accurately since the accuracy of the computed sides of triangulation system depends on it.

What is Phototheodolite

A photo theodolite is a form of ground camera. It is a combination of camera and theodolite ans is used of taking photographic and measuring the angles which the rival plane of collimation makes with base line. The optical axis of the camera is arrange parallel to the line of collimation of the chocolate telescope and the theologize allows The determination of the orientation

Equipment and Advantages of Aerial Photography

Arial photogram try induces the use of photographs taken in a systematic manner from the air they are then controlled by lend survey and measured by photogrametric techniques. Since the First World War the terrestrial photographic surveying has been replaced by aerial photographic surveying or aerial surveying for most of survey work due to development of aero plane.

Angle Measuring Equipment in Surveying

The theodolite is the basic instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. It consists essentially of a sighting tube in form of a telescope, an horizontal and vertical scales, which are so set that horizontal and vertical angles of the object sighted in the telescope can be read from the scale (see fig. 5 and 6)

Levelling Tools & Equipment

The vertical measuring equipment in surveying are major summed into two but other instruments still exist. The two major ones are: Measurement by surveying levels Barometric – pressure devices

Distance Measuring Equipment

The chain tape is also referred to as the Günter’s chain. Gunter’s chain, the 300 –year-old measuring instrument by which all survey measurement in the English – speaking countries and much of it elsewhere was done. It has been superseded by the steel tape and electronic equipment. Gunter’s chain is 66 feet long; 80 chain equal to one mile, and 10 square chains equals

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