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Feb 26, 2016 / Haseeb Jamal -

5 Travel Myths You Need to Stop Believing Right Now

Feb 26, 2016 / Haseeb Jamal -

Canal Comes Alive with Lighted Boat Parade.

Types And Location of Canal Headworks

Any hydraulic structure which supplies water to the off taking canal. Diversion head-work provides an obstruction across a river, so that the water level is raised and water is diverted to the channel at required level. The increase water level helps the flow of water

Weirs - Definition, Types & Locations of Weirs

A solid obstruction put across river to raise its water level and divert water into canal (low head structure) Vertical drop wall or crest wall Upstream, downstream cut off wall at the ends of impervious floor

Components of a Barrage

The only difference between a weir and a barrage is of gates, that is the flow in barrage is regulated by gates and that in weirs, by its crest height. Barrages are costlier than weirs. Weirs and barrages are constructed mostly in plain areas. The heading up of water is affected by gates put across the river. The crest level in the barrage (top of solid obstruction) is kept at

Causes of failure of Weirs & their Remedies

Common causes of failure of weirs include: Excessive and progressive downstream erosion, both from within the stream and through lateral erosion of the banks Erosion of inadequately protected abutments

Site Selection for Barrage

When the angle between the headwork axis and the river axis exceeds 10°, the problem arises of concentration of flow on one side and island formation due to heavy silting within the guide bank on the other side. If the river axis is to the right of headwork axis, the concentration of flow is generally generally on the left side with consequent tendency to form an island

Bligh's Creep Theory for Hydraulic Structures

Bligh's Creep Theory: Design of impervious floor for sub surface flow: It is directly depended on the possibilities of percolation in porous soil on which the floor (apron) is built. Water from upstream percolates and creeps (or travel) slowly through weir base and the subsoil below it. The head lost by the creeping water is proportional to the distance it travels (creep length) along the base of the

Types of Canal Head Regulators

Structure at the head of canal taking off from a reservoir may consist of number of spans separated by piers and operated by gates. Regulators are normally aligned at 90° to the weir. Up to 10" are considered preferable for smooth entry into canal. The functions of canal head regulator are: To admit water into the off taking canal. To regulate the supplies into the canal.

Khosla's Theory of Hydraulic Structures

After studying a lot of dam failure constructed based on Bligh’s theory, Khosla came out with the following: Following are some of the main points from Khosla's Theory. From observation of Siphons designed on Bligh's theory, by actual measurement of pressure, with the help of pipes inserted in the floor of two of the siphons? Does not show any relationship with

Types of Cross Drainage Works

A cross drainage work is a structure carrying the discharge from a natural stream across a canal intercepting the stream. Canal comes across obstructions like rivers, natural drains and other canals. The various types of structures that are built to carry the canal water across the above

Introduction & History of Irrigation Engineering

Irrigation is the controlled application of water to croplands. Its primary objective is to create an optimal soil moisture regime for maximizing crop production and quality while at the same time minimizing the environmental degradation inherent in irrigation of agricultural lands. Irrigation is thus critical for food security in semi-arid and arid areas. Irrigation has two

Water Resources of Pakistan

According to the United Nations' "UN World Water Development Report", the total actual renewable water resources decreased from 2,961 m³ per capita in 2000 to 1,420 m³ per capita in 2005. A more recent study indicates an available supply of water of little more than 1,000 m³ per person, which puts Pakistan in the category of a high stress country. In view of a growing

Irrigation Water Requirement of Crops

It is defined as, "The quantity of water required by a crop in a given period of time for normal growth under field conditions." It includes evaporation and other unavoidable wastes. Usually water requirement for crop is expressed in water depth per unit area. The first thing you need to

Importance of Irrigation Engineering

In the next 35-45- years, world food production will need to double to meet the demands of increased population. 90% of this increased food production will have to come from existing lands. 70% of this increased food production will have to come from irrigated land

Evapotranspiration Measurement by Blaney Criddle & Hargreaves

The estimation of potential evapotranspiration is achieved by adopting empirical approaches, such as the Thornthwaite equation, the Blaney-Criddle formula and the Hargreaves method, all having as a requirement the availability of temperature data. The data set is made up of temperature time series, obtained

Methods & Techniques of Irrigation

The pressurized systems include sprinkler, trickle, and the array of similar systems in which water is conveyed to and distributed over the farmland through pressurized pipe networks. There are many individual system configurations identified by unique features (centre-pivot sprinkler systems). 2. Gravity Flow Irrigation Systems convey and distribute water at the field

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