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Canal Comes Alive with Lighted Boat Parade.

How to do Triangulation Survey

The line of sight should not be near the surface of ground at pt of tangency on account of strata of disturbed air and should be kept at least 2m (61) above the ground preferably 3m (1D) and this allowance (clearance) should be made in deterring the heights of stations. If the peaks in the intervening ground are likely to obstruct, the line of sight, their elevations and

How to do Trigonometric Surveying

Geodetic or trigonometrically surveying takes into account the curvature of earth Since very extensive areas and very large distances are involved. In geodetic surveying highly refined instruments and methods are used. Geodetic work is undertaken by the state agency e.g. survey of Pakistan undertaken by the state agency. The object of geodetic surveying is to

What is Phototheodolite

A photo theodolite is a form of ground camera. It is a combination of camera and theodolite ans is used of taking photographic and measuring the angles which the rival plane of collimation makes with base line. The optical axis of the camera is arrange parallel to the line of collimation of the chocolate telescope and the theologize allows The determination of the orientation

What is Trilateration Surveying

Because of the development of highly accurate electronic measuring devices, a triangulation system can be completely observed, computed and adjusted by measuring the lengths o the sides in the network.

Applications of Triangulation

The establishment of accurately located control points for surveys of large. The accurate location of indirection work such as: Centre lines, terminal pts shafts for long tunnels

Classification of Triangulation System

Triangulation system may be classified according to Degree of accuracy required Magnitude of work

Types & Uses of Photographic Surveying

Photographic surveying also called photograph icing is a method of surveying in which plans or maps are prepared from photographic taken at suitable camera stations or photographic is the science of making measurement from photographs. In terrestrial photo-grammetry maps are prepared from terrestrial (or ground) photographs or terrestrial

Objectives and Uses of Hydrographic Surveying

It is the branch of surveying which deals with any body of still or running water such as a lake, harbor, stream or river. Hydrographic surveys are used to define shore line and under water features.

Method of Surveying a River & Sounding

The survey of the shore line of a river is made by running a theodolite and tape traverse on a shore at a convenient distance form the edge of the water. If the river is narrow, a single theodolite and tape traverse is on one bank and both banks. Located by staid or plane table methods. If the river is wide, it is necessary to run traverses on both banks and locate each shore

How to Establish controls in Hydrographic Surveying

In an extensive survey, the primary horizontal control is established primary horizontal control secondary once by running theodolite and tape traverse b/r the triangulation station, the traverse lines being run to following the shore lines approx. in survey of less extent the primer horizontal, control only is required and is established by running a theodolite and tape

Compound Curves in Engineering Survey

Combination of two or more simple circular curves of different radius having their curvature in the same direction. Essentially, a compound curve consists of two curves that are joined at a point of tangency and are located on the same side of a common tangent. Though their radii are in the same direction, they are of different values. tr= perception/reaction time

Errors and Corrections of Errors in Levelling

Collimation error occurs when the collimation axis is not truly horizontal when the instrument is level. The effect is illustrated in the sketch below, where the collimation axis is tilted with respect to the horizontal by an angle a:

Types of Floors and Methods of Construction

The floor whose topping is of brick. These are easy to construct and repair. but the surface resulting from these is not smooth and is rough, hence, easily absorbs and retains moisture which may cause dampness in the building. For constructing a brick floor, the top surface of earth or murram filling is properly consolidated. Over this compacted earth, a layer of clean sand about 10 cm thick

Properties of a Good Sealant for Joints

Protection Durability Less expansion Good adhesion Chemical inertness Sound insulation - Air tight Must be of softer grade and not stiff Good wetting behavior Must be able to absorb thermal stresses

Dampness in Buildings and DPC

Rising damp is caused by capillary action drawing moisture up through the porous elements of a building's fabric. Rising damp, and some penetrating damp, can be caused by faults to, or the absence of a damp-proof course (DPC) or damp-proof membrane (DPM). It is continuous layer of impervious material applied to prevent moisture transmission. A common example is

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