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Structural Elements of Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Concrete is a stone like substance obtained by permitting a carefully proportioned mixture of cement, sand and gravel or other aggregate and water to harden in forms of the shape and of dimensions of the desired structure. Long horizontal or inclined members with limited width and height are called beams. Their main function is to transfer loads from the slab to the columns.

Manufacture, Properties and Design of Steel Fibers in Reinforced Concrete

Steel fibers are short discontinues strips of specially manufactured steel.Their inclusion in the concrete improves the mechanical properties of concrete significantly. As the most common matrix, which is now in use in construction industry is Reinforced Cement Concrete. Reinforced cement concrete is combination of steel, cement, aggregates & water. Concrete acts

Horizontal and Vertical Reinforcement in Walls

Separate cross sections of all walls. Each cross section should clearly show the size of block used (i. e. 4, 6, 8, or 10 inch) for the building inspector and installer. Each cross section should show the wall heights involved for every storey... Vertical and horizontal reinforcing steel bar sizes, spacing and grade of steel should be clearly marked for every storey in each wall cross

Functions of Slab and Design of Slab

A flat piece of concrete, put on the walls or columns of a structure. It serves as a walking surface but may also serve as a load bearing member, as in slab homes. Its necessary to check the slab deflection for all load cases both for short and long term basis. In general, under full service load, Deflection (d) < L/250 or 40 mm whichever is smaller. Check for lateral

Reinforcement Detailing in Concrete Structures

Detailing is as important as design since proper detailing of engineering designs is an essential link in the planning and engineering process as some of the most devastating connections. ACI Reinforcement location in non prismatic beam. ACI reinforcement detailing in cantilever beam. A design engineer's responsibility should include assuring the structural safety

Reinforced Concrete Rock Fill Dams

Rock fill dams are considered to be one of the durable types of dams and can be very economical depending upon the availability of materials to be used in Dam. More rock fill dams have been faced with conventionally placed reinforced concrete than with any other type of impervious membrane. In most cases, these facings have performed well for correctly

Bonded Concrete Slab Post Tensioning

Post-tensioning is a method of reinforcing (strengthening) concrete or other materials with high-strength steel strands rebars, typically referred to as tendons. It has the following benefits as compared to unbonded post tensioning. Bonded post-tensioned concrete is the descriptive term for a method of applying compression after pouring concrete and the curing

Materials Used in Bridges Construction

The traditional building materials for bridges are stones, timber and steel, and more recently reinforced and pre-stressed concrete. For special elements aluminum and its alloys and some types of plastics are used. These materials have different qualities of strength, workability, durability and resistance against corrosion. They differ also in their structure

Earthquake Resistant Buildings Design

Earthquake causes shaking of the ground. So a building resting on it will experience motion at its base. From Newton's First Law of Motion, even though the base of the building moves with the ground, the roof has a tendency to stay in its original position.

Reinforced Concrete Building Elements

The floor of the basement of the building. It is also called cellar. The basement floor is either completely or partially below the ground floor. A basement can be used in almost exactly the same manner as an additional above-ground floor of a house or other building. However, the use of basements depends largely on factors specific to a particular geographical area such as climate, soil,

Types and Causes of Cracks in Concrete

One of the major causes of cracks in concrete is contraction and cooling due to heat evolution during the process of hydration which leads the concrete towards the setting. Cracks can appear in the section which is smaller and attached to the larger section due to differential expansion and contraction. The rapid drying usually occurs during hot weather when concrete

ACI Building Code Requirements and Safety Provisions

Structural members must always be proportioned to resist loads greater than service or actual loads, in order to provide proper safety against failure. In the strength design method, the member is designed to resist the factored loads which are obtained by multiplying the factored loads with live loads. Different factors are used for different loadings. As dead loads can be estimated

Reinforced Cement Concrete Design

Since concrete is a brittle material and is strong in compression. It is weak in tension, so steel is used inside concrete for strengthening and reinforcing the tensile strength of concrete. The steel must have appropriate deformations to provide strong bonds and interlocking of both materials.

Advantages and Limitations of Prestressed Concrete

The pre-stressing of concrete has several advantages as compared to traditional reinforced concrete (RC) without pre stressing. A fully prestressed concrete member is usually subjected to compression during service life. This rectifies several deficiencies of concrete. The following text broadly mentions the advantages of a pre-stressed concrete member with an

Bamboo as Concrete Reinforcement

Bamboo is one of the oldest building materials. If we see in history, bamboo was used for construction of houses in areas where there was abundance of plants especially in South America, Africa& south East Asia. Bamboo usually grows at temperature of 250C to 500C.The ideal place for growth of bamboo is fully water free area. These trees usually grow on sandy soil

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