Skip to main content
Feb 26, 2016 / Haseeb Jamal -

5 Travel Myths You Need to Stop Believing Right Now

Feb 26, 2016 / Haseeb Jamal -

Canal Comes Alive with Lighted Boat Parade.

Atterberg Limits of Soil Classification - Atterberg Test

By: Haseeb Jamal / On: Mar 23, 2017 / Notes, Definition, Types of
Atterberg Limits in Graphical View
 
 

A fine-gained soil can exist in any of several states; which state depends on the amount of water in the soil system. When water is added to a dry soil, each particle is covered with a film of adsorbed water. If the addition of water is continued, the thickness of the water film on a particle increases. Increasing the thickness of the water films permits the particles to slide past one another more easily. The behavior of the soil, therefore, is related to the amount of water in the system. Approximately sixty years ago, Albert Atterberg defined the boundaries of four states in terms of "limits"  called Atterberg Limits which are as follows:

Atterberg Limits Definitions

  • Liquid limit: The boundary between the liquid and plastic states;

  • Plastic limit: The boundary between the plastic and semi-solid states;

  • Shrinkage limit: The boundary between the semi-solid and solid states.

Atterberg Limits Procedure for Determination of Liquid Limit | Pentration Laboratory Experiment on Bitumen Procedure for Determination of Plastic Limit

Casagrande's Definition

These limits have since been more definitely defined by A. Casagrande as the water contents which exist under the following conditions:

  • Liquid limit: The water content at which the soil has such a small shear strength that it flows to close a groove of standard width when jarred in a specified manner.

  • Plastic limit: The water content at which the soil begins to crumble when rolled into threads of specified size.

  • Shrinkage limit: The water content that is just sufficient to fill the pores when the

Liquid Limit Definition

The Liquid Limit, also known as the upper plastic limit, is the water content at which soil changes from the liquid state to a plastic state. OR

It is the minimum moisture content at which a soil flows upon application of very small shear force. OR

The moisture content at which any increase in the moisture content will cause a plastic soil to behave as a liquid. The limit is defined as the moisture content, in percent, required to close a distance of 0.5 inches along the bottom of a groove after 25 blows in a liquid limit device.

Liquid Limit (LL or wL) - the water content, in percent, of a soil at the arbitrarily defined boundary between the semi-liquid and plastic states.

Atterberg's Limits
Atterberg Limits Chart

Plastic Limit Definition

The Plastic Limit, also known as the lower plastic limit, is the water content at which a soil changes from the plastic state to a semisolid state. OR

The soil moisture content at which any increase in the moisture content will cause a semi-solid soil to become plastic. The limit is defined as the moisture content at which a thread of soil just crumbles when it is carefully rolled out to a diameter of 1/8 inch. The plastic limit is defined as the moisture content where the thread breaks apart at a diameter of 3.2 mm (about 1/8 inch). A soil is considered non-plastic if a thread cannot be rolled out down to 3.2 mm at any moisture possible.

Plastic Limit (PL or wP) - the water content, in percent, of a soil at the boundary between the plastic and semi-solid states.

Plasticity of Soil

It is defined as the property of cohesive soil which posses the ability to undergo changes of shape without rupture or a change in volume.

Non plastic soils

Soil that do not have plastic limit are reported as being non-plastic e.g fairly clean sand, rock dust etc. Non plastic soils make excellent road materials when properly confined under wearing course .e.g. Rock dust. Even when wet they form hard, durable surface whereas clean sand displaces easily under the load. However, their use for base course or for fill brings difficult construction problems.

Plasticity Index (PI)

Plasticity Index is the range of water content over which a soil behaves plastically. It indicates the degree of plasticity of the soil. PI is the difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit. Greater the difference, greater is the plasticity of the soil. Soils with a high PI tend to be predominantly clay, while those with a lower PI tend to be predominantly silt. Soils with high plasticity index are highly compressible. Plasticity index in also a measure of cohesiveness with high value of PI indicating high degree of cohesion. Experience shows that soils with high P.I are much less desirable for sub grade or base course than those having less indexes. For base course common specification is P.I < 3.

Shrinkage Limit

It is the maximum water content at which a reduction in water content will not cause a decrease in volume of the soil mass. It is the lowest water content at which soil can still be saturated.

Liquidity Index / Water Plasticity Ratio

The Atterberg limits are found for re-moulded soil samples. These limits as such do not indicate the consistency of undisturbed soil. The index to indicate consistency of undisturbed soils is called liquidity index of the soil or Water Plasticity Ration of the soil. Its advantage is that The liquidity index (LI) is used for scaling the natural water content of a soil sample to the limits.

Flow Index

The curve obtained from the graph of water content against the log of blows while determining the liquid limit lies almost on a straight line and is known as the flow curve. The equation for flow curve is:

W = - If Log N + C

Where 'If is the slope of flow curve and is termed as "Flow Index"

Toughness Index

The shearing strength of clay at plastic limit is a measure of its toughness. It is the ratio of plasticity index to the flow index. It gives us an idea of the shear strength of soil.

Atterberg Test Video

 

Comments

rogerlagasca Oct 08, 2019

including reasonable comments here...  먹튀사이트

rogerlagasca Oct 09, 2019

This blog is so nice to me. I will keep on coming here again and again. Visit my link as well..

Hatha Yoga 

rogerlagasca Oct 09, 2019

Nice knowledge gaining article. This post is really the best on this valuable topic.

 

harga epoxy lantai 2019

rogerlagasca Oct 09, 2019

Cool stuff you have got and you keep update all of us.

agenzia di comunicazione

rogerlagasca Oct 09, 2019

nice post, keep up with this interesting work. It really is good to know that this topic is being covered also on this web site so cheers for taking time to discuss this!

blockchain gold

rogerlagasca Oct 09, 2019

Most of the time I don’t make comments on websites, but I'd like to say that this article really forced me to do so. Really nice post!

Buy Telegram Channel Subscribers

rogerlagasca Oct 09, 2019

I really loved reading your blog. It was very well authored and easy to understand. Unlike other blogs I have read which are really not that good.Thanks alot!

cartridges

rogerlagasca Oct 09, 2019

I have a hard time describing my thoughts on content, but I really felt I should here.  Your article is really great.  I like the way you wrote this information.

Assistir Filmes Online

rogerlagasca Oct 10, 2019

I am very happy to discover your post as it will become on top in my collection of favorite blogs to visit.

canais IPTV

rogerlagasca Oct 10, 2019

Thank you so much for sharing this great blog.Very inspiring and helpful too.Hope you continue to share more of your ideas.I will definitely love to read.   web development namibia

rogerlagasca Oct 11, 2019

Please let me know if you’re looking for a article writer for your site. You have some really great posts and I feel I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please send me an email if interested. Thank you!  situs poker online

rogerlagasca Oct 11, 2019

Great content material and great layout. Your website deserves all of the positive feedback it’s been getting.

Watch UEFA Champions League Live

rogerlagasca Oct 11, 2019

Great! It sounds good. Thanks for sharing..

Gogoro Viva手機架

rogerlagasca Oct 11, 2019

This article was written by a real thinking writer.  I agree many of the with the solid points made by the writer.  I’ll be back.domino online

rogerlagasca Oct 11, 2019

Your music is amazing. You have some very talented artists. I wish you the best of success.

cara daftar sbobet

rogerlagasca Oct 16, 2019

Your work is very good and I appreciate you and hopping for some more informative posts. Thank you for sharing great information to us.

google play gift cards

rogerlagasca Oct 16, 2019

Interesting post. I Have Been wondering about this issue, so thanks for posting. Pretty cool post.It 's really very nice and Useful post.Thanks

Schiphol taxi

rogerlagasca Oct 16, 2019

Your content is nothing short of brilliant in many ways.  I think this is engaging and eye-opening material.  Thank you so much for caring about your content and your readers.

一對一約會

rogerlagasca Oct 17, 2019

Thanks for your information, it was really very helpfull..  Lean 6 Sigma

rogerlagasca Oct 17, 2019

Nice Informative Blog having nice sharing..   situs pkv online

rogerlagasca Oct 18, 2019

This is the type of information I’ve long been trying to find. Thank you for writing this information.  this website

rogerlagasca Oct 19, 2019

Nice to read your article! I am looking forward to sharing your adventures and experiences.  this website

rogerlagasca Oct 19, 2019

Your website is really cool and this is a great inspiring article.school panic button

rogerlagasca Oct 19, 2019

Nice Informative Blog having nice sharing..leminhstore

rogerlagasca Oct 19, 2019

Thanks for this article very helpful. thanks.newshosting vpn

rogerlagasca Oct 19, 2019

I love the way you write and share your niche! Very interesting and different! Keep it coming!alicante holiday rentals

randolphbirkhead Oct 19, 2019

Great post I would like to orthopedic Memory Foam thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this interesting and knowledgeable article.

rogerlagasca Oct 24, 2019

Great write-up, I am a big believer in commenting on blogs to inform the blog writers know that they’ve added something worthwhile to the world wide web!..

<a href="http://yourautoglasspro.com/">windshield repair</a>

 

rogerlagasca Oct 30, 2019

Good artcile, but it would be better if in future you can share more about this subject. Keep posting. Joan Rosillo

rogerlagasca Nov 01, 2019

I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don't know what to say except that I have enjoyed reading. Nice blog. I will keep visiting this blog very often.<a href="http://doithuong.xeng52.club/">tai game doi thuong</a>

rogerlagasca Nov 01, 2019

Hey what a brilliant post I have come across and believe me I have been searching out for this similar kind of post for past a week and hardly came across this. Thank you very much and will look for more postings from you.<a href="https://bancasieuthi.online/">ban ca doi thuong</a>

rogerlagasca Nov 02, 2019

I am unable to read articles online very often, but I’m glad I did today.  This is very well written and your points are well-expressed.  Please, don’t ever stop writing.<a href="https://win247.club/">tai game doi thuong</a>

Subscribe to our Newsletter

Stay informed - subscribe to our newsletter.
The subscriber's email address.

Search AboutCivil

Related Civil-Engg. Content