Design optimization is the selection of most efficient and cost effective diameter of Penstock, taking in to account its cost and benefits. Optimization is the application of mathematical tools and techniques to an engineering sector that will enable the concerned people to select the most optimum option. In hydropower
The success and efficiency of the irrigation system depends how efficiently and carefully canal network has been designed, these canals may be constructed through different types of soil such as: Alluvial soil, Non-alluvial soil etc. Thus the design criteria for earthen channels depends on the type of soil in which canal is going to be constructed such as:
The cement must be as per the approved mix design and fresh.
The cement must be stored properly inside a closed container, room or must be stored on an elevated flat form and covered properly with tarpaulin.
The concrete that is prepared at the site (for pouring) is not exactly the same that is made in the laboratory with the same ratio, this difference is due to low quality control measures and insufficient monitoring system. The term ‘labcrete’ is often used to define concrete or mortar that is made and tested under strict laboratory conditions,
Bar Bending Schedule (BBS) is basically the representation of bend shapes and cut length of bars as per structure drawings. BBS is prepared from construction drawings. For each member separate BBS is prepared because bars are bended in various shapes depending on the shape of member.