Septic tanks are now a day’s extensively used in most parts of the world and people are trying to adopt this system of removing human excreted waste.The working principal of septic tank is quite simple the bigger particles that comes with the waste water settles down at the bottom of the tank forms sludge, the greasy
Surge shaft is a structure provided at the end of headrace tunnel or pipe to account for water hammering effect in the pipe at its downstream. Surge shaft is considered to be an important component of Hydropower projects, especially for those involving headrace pressure tunnels.
Design flow for sanitary sewer can be find as shown in steps below: Calculate the anticipated future (ultimate) population of area served by the sewer using ultimate population density. Multiply the ultimate population by per capita average daily sewage flow to obtain the average daily sewage flow. Select or calculate peaking factor (P.F)
Transportation Planning can be defined as Activities related to changing the way transportation services are provided. Transportation plays a vital role in our everyday lives and considered to be an important component of mankind’s infrastructure. All of us travel somewhere almost every day, whether it might be
There are different definitions for headrace tunnel (HRT) used at different scenarios. “Headrace tunnel takes water from connecting channels and convey it to the fore bay or directly to the penstock provided with surge shaft” depending upon the project and site requirements some times also known as power tunnels.
Headrace pipe can also serve the same function as that of Headrace tunnels, depending upon the site location, geological and topographical constraints. as discussed earlier that tunnels can be divided into two types on the basis of type of flow