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Hydraulic Jump Experiment

By: Haseeb Jamal / On: May 01, 2017 / Lab-Notes, Experiments
 
 

Objectives of the experiments:

  1. To create the hydraulic jump.

  2. To verify the questions of fluid flow.

  3. To determine the slatrility & characteristics of the hydraulic jump obtained in the lab using Impulse momentum & specific energy equations.

  4. To compare measured flow depths with theoretical results.

Theoretical background:

Hydraulic jumps are very efficient in dissipating the energy of the flow to make it more controllable & less erosive. In engineering practice, the hydraulic jump frequently appears downstream from overflow structures (spillways), or under flow structures (sluice gates), where velocities are height.

A hydraulic jump is formed when liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of lower velocity only if the 3 independent velocities (y1, y2, fr1) of the hydraulic jump equation conform to the following equation:

Y2 = y1/2 [-1+√1+8Fr2 ]

Fr2 = 92/9y3

Apparatus:

  • Glass walled flume with sluice gates & a spillway arrangement
  • Point gauges
  • Manometer & scales
  • Pump

Procedure for Hydraulic Jump Experiment:

  1. I started the pump to supply water to the flume.

  2. Then I closed the tail gate to allow water to accumulate and to develop hydraulic jump.

  3. I adjusted the position of the hydraulic jump by adjusting the amount of closure of slvice gate.

  4. I then measured the depth of the bed of flume by using a point gauge.

  5. In the next step , I measured water surface level before it had crossed the spillway.

  6. Then I measured height of spillway & the depth of water over the spillway.

  7. Using the point gauges I then determined the water surface levels downstream of the jump.

  8. Then I measured y1 & y2.

  9. I repeated the measurement steps again for a different flowchart.

Results:

S.No Hm(m) Y1(mm) Y2(mm) Lj(m) H(mn) H1(mn) H2
1 0.8 342 46 2 6.5 24 106 0.45

Sources of errors:

Human errors:

  1. Errors occurred during measurements i.e. by taking erroneous reading of depths or in micrometer.
  2. Errors occurred in operation of sluice gates.

Instrumentation error:

  • Leakage from the flume
  • Assumptions of ideal conditions did not prevail:
  • Ideal conditions which prevailed in the theoretical equations were not there and frictional forces also had some effect on the experiment.
 
Let us know in the comments what you think about the concepts in this article!

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