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Definition and Methods of Curing of Concrete

Curing can be described as keeping the concrete moist and warm enough so that the hydration of cement can continue. More elaborately, it can be described as the process of maintaining a satisfactory moisture content and a favorable temperature in concrete during the period immediately following placement, so that hydration of cement may continue until

How to Determine Maturity of Concrete

One of the methods to determine the strength of concrete is to find maturity of concrete. Maturity of concrete is defined as Summation of product of age and temperature (Curing). Concrete Maturity = ∑ (Time x Temperature). Hydration can take place at minimum of -10°C, below this water crystals (ice) do not react with cement. Datum Temperature = -10°C, If

Corrosion in Concrete Reinforcement

The basic problem in Reinforced concrete structures is the corrosion of steel reinforcement. The main cause of this corrosion is intrusion of water inside the RC structures. The corrosion of steel reinforcement can be judged by peculiar cracking of concrete structures. At last stage of corrosion, the steel reinforcement becomes exposed and the extent of corrosion

Concrete Slump Test - Theory and Lab Test

A slump test is a method used to determine the consistency of concrete. The consistency, or stiffness, indicates how much water has been used in the mix. The stiffness of the concrete mix should be matched to the requirements for the finished product quality. Slump is a measurement of concrete's workability, or fluidity. It's an indirect measurement of concrete

Durability of Concrete

Durability is defined as the capability of concrete to resist weathering action, chemical attack and abrasion while maintaining its desired engineering properties. It normally refers to the duration or life span of trouble-free performance. Different concretes require different degrees of durability depending on the exposure environment and properties desired. For

Acid Attack on Concrete

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is highly alkaline in nature with pH values above 12. When the cement paste comes into contact with the acids its components break down, this phenomenon is known as acid attack. If pH decreases to values lower than stability limits of cement hydrates, then the corresponding hydrate loses calcium and decomposes to amorphous hydrogel.

Common Types of Concrete

Normal concrete High Strength Concrete High Performance Concrete Air Entrained Concrete Light Weight Concrete Self Compacting Concrete Shotcrete Pervious Concrete Roller Compacted Concrete The concrete in which common ingredients i.e. aggregate, water, cement are used is known as normal concrete. It is also called normal weight concrete or normal strength concrete.

Disadvantages of Concrete in Construction

Concrete has a very low tensile strength and requires the use of reinforcing bars at tensile zone. Forms are required to hold the concrete in place until it hardens sufficiently. The low strength per unit of weight of concrete leads to heavy members and is an important consideration for tall buildings and long-span structures. The properties of concrete vary widely due to

Factors Affecting Workability of Concrete

Workability is one of the physical parameters of concrete which affects the strength and durability as well as the cost of labor and appearance of the finished product. Concrete is said to be workable when it is easily placed and compacted homogeneously i.e without bleeding or Segregation. Unworkable concrete needs more work or effort to be compacted in place, also

Methods of Transportation of Concrete

Transporting the concrete mix is defined as the transferring of concrete from the mixing plant to the construction site. The main objective in transporting concrete is to ensure that the water-cement ratio, slump or consistency, air content, and homogeneity are not modified from their intended states. Concrete produced from a mixer is required to be transported to the

How Long to Cure Concrete and Effects of Curing

Curing is a procedure that is adopted to promote the hardening of concrete under conditions of humidity and temperature which are conducive to the progressive and proper setting of the constituent cement. Curing has a major influence on the properties of hardened concrete such as durability, strength, water-tightness, wear resistance, volume stability, and resistance

De Icing of Concrete

It is similar to freezing and thawing action In winters to remove the ice over large structures e.g. deck of bridge etc the chemical sodium chloride NaCl or calcium chloride CaCl2 is added these chemicals decrease the freezing point of water and the ice melts. When ice melts they get dissolved in it. A super saturated solution (called brine if NaCl is used) is formed over the

Rate of Strength Gain of Concrete

Strength can be defined as ability to resist change. One of the most valuable properties of the concrete is its strength. Strength is most important parameter that gives the picture of overall quality of concrete. Strength of concrete usually directly related to cement paste. Many factors influence the rate at which the strength of concrete increases after mixing. Before coming

Compressive Strength of Concrete

Strength of hardened concrete measured by the compression test. The compression strength of concrete is a measure of the concrete's ability to resist loads which tend to compress it. The compressive strength is measured by crushing cylindrical concrete specimens in compression testing machine. The compressive strength of concrete is calculated by the failure load

Classification & Advantages of Light Weight Concrete

The concrete whose density is lower than normal concrete (2200 kg/m3 or 140 lb/ft3 ) is known as lightweight concrete. It includes an expanding agent in it to increases the volume of the mixture while giving additional qualities. It is lighter than conventional concrete (Dry Density 300 kg/m3 up to 1840 kg/m3). In place density of 90 to 115 lb/ft3 compared to the

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