Engineering Mechanics
 Concept of measurement of mass, force, time and space, system of units, Fundamental & Derived units, conversion of units, required accuracy of results
 General Principles of static’s, Vector addition, subtraction and products,
 Resultant of distributed (linear & non linear) force systems,
 General conditions of equilibrium of coplaner forces, Laws of triangle, parallelogram and polygon of forces,
 Types of Beams, supports and loads, simple cases of axial forces, shear forces and bending moment diagrams,
 Problem involving friction on flat surfaces
 Geometrical properties of plane areas
 Work, energy, power, impulse, momentum, conservation of momentum and energy
 Rectilinear and curvilinear motions, Tangential and normal components of Acceleration, Simple harmonic motion
Engineering Mechanics Lab
 Roof Truss
 To find the various forces in various parts of wall crane
 To verify the line of polygon on various forces
 To find coefficient of friction between various materials on inclined plan
 To verify the principle of moment in the disc apparatus
 Helical block
 To draw a load efficiency curve for a screw jack

Books Recommended
Engineering Mechanics
4th edition by Irving H. shames, Prentice Hall

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Engineering Drawing
 Introduction:
 Drawing Instrument & their use.
 Types of lines & letters.
 Scales
 Dimensions & their Types.
 Planning of a Sheet.
 Types of Engineering Drawings.
 Geometric Constructions & Engineering Curves, Parabola, Ellipse & Hyperbola.
 Projections:
 Concept of Projection.
 Types of Projections, Orthographic Projection.
 1st Angle & 3rd Angle Projection
 Orthographic Projection of Points, Simple lines, simple planes & simple solids.
 Three Views of an object.
 Sectional Views.
 Isometric Views from given orthographic Views.
 Free Sketches. Of solid objects & building drawings.
 Building Drawings.
 Building symbols.
 Types of building drawings, proposed drawing, submission drawing, Working drawing & completion drawing.
 Introduction to Bridge Drawings.
 Engineering Drawing
 Drawing Exercises:
 Planning of sheet & practicing lines & letters.
 Orthographic Projections of given model, Sectional Views.
 Steel Structure Connections detail.
 Preparation of Plan, Elevation & Section of Single story simple buildings.
 Isometric & other three dimensional View
 Free Hand Sketches.

Books Recommended
 Essentials of Drafting by James D. Bethune.
 Engineering Drawing by N.D. Butt.

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Engineering Mechanics, 4th edition by Irving H. shames, Prentice Hall

Computer Applications in Civil Engg. & Communications
Part – A: Computer Applications
 Introduction to Computer Hardware
 Introduction to Operating Systems
 Introduction to Word Processors
 Introduction to Spread Sheets
 Introduction to Presentation Software
Part – B: Communication Skills
 Brain Storming Process
 Analysis of Topic
 Audience Analysis
 Sequencing the Presentation Material
 Detailing of Material
 Preparing Conclusion
 Question & Answer Sessions
 Preparation of Presentation in Software
 Presentation to Audience
 Participating in seminars and interviews
 Presenting Conference Papers

Books Recommended
 Mastering OfficeXP, by Gini Cortrte
 Communication Skills ,University of Phoenix

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Civil Engineeirng Softwares Answers

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Engineering Mechanics


Applied Linear Algebra
 Vector Algebra:
 Introduction to scalars and vectors, Vectors in the plane, Scalar and vector products, Lines in R2, R 3 and planes, Spheres, Orthogonal projections, Perpendicular distance from a point to a line and a plane, Vector spaces, Subspaces, Linear combinations, Linearly dependent and Independent set of vectors, Spanning of a vector spaces, Bases of a vector spaces and its applications in engineering and Business.
 Matrix Algebra:
 Introduction to matrices, Matrix operations, Inverse Matrix, Rank of a Matrix, Echelon form of a Matrix and its applications in our daily life situation problems, ie in linecommunication as Airlines, Telephonelines, Connecting cities by roads.
 Determinants:
 Determinants and its properties, Inverse of a matrix, Rank of a matrix, linearly dependent and independent by determinants.
 Linear system of equations:
 Independent, Dependent and Inconsistent system of equations and its graphical representation, Trivial and nontrivial solutions of homogeneous system of linear equations and its applications as linear models in Business, Economics, Science, Electric Circuits and other branches of engineering. Solution of linear system of equations by determinants and its applications as Leontief inputoutput matrix of the economy, Coding and decoding theory.
 Linear Transformations:
 Reflection operators, Projection operators, Rotation operators, Shear in x and y directions, Dilation and Contraction.
 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors:
 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors and its applications as deformation, Markov processes as Masstransit problems, Forecasting of weather and to develop the solution of the system of differential equations for mechanical system/electrical system and civil engineering, especially in public health engineering problems.

Books Recommended
David C Lay, Linear Algebra and its Application,
2nd Edition, AddisonWesley Publication Jan 1998

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Engineering Mechanics, 4th edition by Irving H. shames, Prentice Hall


Electrical Technology
 Power Systems layout, generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric power
 Electrical Elements and circuits
 Electrical current, voltage, power, energy, Ohm’s law, inductance, capacitance, Kirchoffs laws. Introduction to node voltage and loop current methods.
 Principle of House wiring and Industrial wiring
 Diode Transistor and simple rectifier circuit.
 Electrical know how related to experimental design instrumentations like corrosion rate measurements, strain gauges, LDT’s LVDT’s. etc.

Books Recommended
Theraja, B.L. Electrical Technology,
S. Chand (21st or 26th edition)

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Engineering Mechanics


Semester  2 Syllabus & Courses

 Simple stress and strain
 Types of stresses and strains
 Load extension diagram for different materials
 Hooke’s law, Modulus of elasticity
 Lateral and volumetric strain. Poisson’s ratio
 Temperature stresses and compound bars
 Theory of torsion of solid and hollow circular shafts
 Advanced cases of shear force and bending moment diagrams for statically determinate beams. Relationship between Load, Shear and Moment.
 Theory of simple bending, Neutral Axis, Resisting moments and section modulus.
 Shear stresses in monosymmetric beams
 Deflection of beams by double integration, moment area and conjugate beam methods
Mechanics of Solids Lab
 Investigation of Hook’s law that is the proportional relation between force and stretching in elastic deformation,
 Determination of torsion and deflection,
 Measurement of forces on supports in statically determinate beam,
 Determination of shear forces in beams,
 Determination of bending moments in beams,
 Measurement of deflections in statically determinate beam,
 Measurement of strain in a bar
 Bend test steel bar;
 Yield/tensile strength of steel bar;

Recommended Books
 Strength of Materials by Andrew Pytel & Ferdinand L. Singer
 Mechanics of Materials by E.P. Popov

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Mechanics of Solids  Strength of Materials

 Introduction to Programming & Visual Basic
 Visual Basic Code Components
 Data Types
 Variables
 Control Structures
 Procedures
 Arrays
 File I/O operations
Lab
 Visual Basic Code Components (program examples)
 Data Types (program examples)
 Variables (program examples)
 Control Structures (program examples)
 Procedures (program examples)
 Arrays (program examples)
 File I/O operations (program examples)
 Programming related to Civil Engineering
 Matrix addition, subtraction and multiplication.
 Beam analysis program for simply supported, cantilever, Overhanging Beam
 Program for finding resultant of forces and its angle
 Program for stress analysis of composite bar

Recommended Books
 Visual Basic 6 by Deitel & Deitel, T.R. Nieto
 Visual Basic.NET by Deitel & Deitel, T.R. Nieto

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VB.Net for Civil Engineering

 Cements, Ceramics, and Refractories:
 Manufacture, properties, and application of lime, cement, ceramic and bricks
 Mortars and concrete, Pozzolanic material, effects of various chemicals on cement and concrete. Methods of protection, strength and test of building stone. Quarrying and dressing of stone.
 Timbers:
 Varieties and uses of important timbers, method of seasoning and sawing Decay, seasoning and preservation of timber, laminated materials.
 Glass and Plastics:
 Composition, varieties, properties and use of glass, plastic, laminates and adhesive.
 Metals:
 Composition and properties of ferrous and non ferrous metals used in civil engineering. Effect of various heat treatments on the properties of steel and its alloys. Corrosion and methods of corrosion control. Properties of thermal insulation material for use in buildings.
 Paints and Varnishes:
 Composition, preparation, properties, test and uses of paints, plasters, varnishes and distempers.
 Other Materials:
 Acoustical material and geotextiles, properties and uses of asphalt, bitumen, rubber and asbestos, laminates and adhesive.
Lab
 Gradation of coarse aggregate
 Gradation of fine aggregate
 Fineness of cement
 Setting time
 Normal Consistency
 Initial Setting time
 Final Setting time
 Tensile Strength of Briquette
 Compressive strength of mortar cube
 Soundness test of Cement
 Density of Cement
 Slump Test

Recommended Books
 Neville A. Properties of Concrete, English Language Book Society
 Smith R. C. Material of Construction, McGrawHill

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Engineering Materials Lectures

Calculus
 Single Variable Calculus:
 Basic concepts of single variable function, Continuous, discontinuous and piecewise continuous functions, Periodic, odd and even functions, algebraic functions, Transcendental functions and its graphical representations, Applications of functions in our daily life situations.
 Differential Calculus:
 Limits and continuity, Interpretation of a derivative, Geometric interpretation, Total differential and its applications in our daily life situations, The use of a table of different type derivatives, Higher order derivatives, Tangents and normals, Approximation of a function at a particular point by Taylor's and Maclaurin's series, Maximum and minimum values of a function, The first derivative test, The second derivative test, Point of inflexion and its applications in business and engineering.
 Integral Calculus:
 Basic concepts of integration, A table of integral formulas, Some rules of integration, Definite integrals, The area bounded by a curve, Integration by parts, Integration as the limit of a sum, Volume of revolution, and its applications in our daily life situations
 Multivariate Calculus:
 Basic concepts of multivariate function, Level curves and surfaces, Limits and continuity, Partial differentiation, Geometric interpretation, higher partial derivatives. Tangent planes, Total differential, Vector functions and its differentiation and integration, The directional derivative, The gradient, Scalar and Vector fields, Normal property of the gradient, Divergence , Curl, Tangent planes and normal lines, Extrema of functions of two variables, Second partials test, Extreme value theorem, Method of Constrained optimization and Lagrange multipliers.

Recommended Books
 Robert Davison, Addison Wesley, Mathematics for Engineers
 Antom, H. Calculus and Analytic Geometry, Johney Wiley and Sons.
 Toff and Mckay, Practical Mathematics
 S.A.H.Rizvi, Engineering Mathematics

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Engineering Mechanics


 Introduction to Geology
 Importance of Geology for Civil Engineering Projects
 Physical properties and identification of common rocks forming minerals
 Rocks formation and classification:
 According to the mode of occurrences
 According to the Silica contents
 Weather and erosion:
 Weather classification, fresh, slightly weathered, moderately weathered etc.
 Discontinuity classification:
 Joints, faults and other fractures, micro structural features, such as lamination, cleavages, foliations, spacing of discontinuities as close, wide, medium etc,
 Description of Rock masses as thickly bedded or thinly bedded
 Identification of filling in joints, sand clay and breccias etc
 Color of grains, description with respect to the rock color and identification as a course grained, hardness classification as soft with respect to test
 Geological classification and identification of Rocks by geological names
 Identification and subordinate constitutions in rocks samples such as seams or branches of other types of minerals for example, Dolomite, Lime stone, Calcareous sand stone, sand.
 Classification of Durability of Rocks in Dry and wet condition with durability test
 Engineering and physical properties of rocks
 Geological technical properties of rocks used as building stones, as a decorated stones and as a industrial rocks such as color, luster, streak, specific gravity, water absorption and unit weight etc.
 Brief Introduction to structural Geology:
 Plate Tectonics with respect to the global application, earthquakes, causes of earthquakes, protective measures against earthquakes and zoning of earth quakes in Pakistan
 Role of geology in selection of sites for dams, reservoirs, tunnels and other civil engineering structures
 Brief introduction of local geology

 Analysis of stresses and strains at a point due to combined effect of axial force, shear force and bending moment
 Mohr’s circle for stresses and strains
 Relationship between elastic constants
 Theories of Failure
 Unsymmetrical Bending
 Shear Stresses in monosymmetric beams
 Shear stress distribution in unsymmetrical beams
 Shear flow, shear center, concentration of stresses
 Thick and thin walled cylinders
 Analysis of curved beams and beams on elastic foundation
 Short eccentrically loaded columns
 Core of a section
 Rankine Gordon formula for intermediate columns, slenderness ratio
 Eccentrically Loaded Columns
 Inelastic behavior of beams in flexure
 Shape factor of a section.

Recommended Books
 Strength of Materials by Andrew Pytel & Ferdinand L. Singer
 Mechanics of Materials by E.P. Popov

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Solid Mechanics Lectures

 Building Construction:
 Site Selection for a building, Orientation and Setting out for construction
 Layout Techniques:
 Layout Techniques with special reference to buildings. Excavation in different types of soils
 Masonry construction
 Types of stone and brick masonry; bonds in brick masonry, Alignments, Plumbs, leveling & cambering.
 Form work
 Form work for general insitu construction, props, bracing and horizontal shuttering platforms.
 Damp proofing in building, Interior and exterior surface finishes
 Various types of floors & roofing systems, planner & nonplaner roofing system, roof treatments.
 Expansion joints and construction joints
 Wood work in building construction
 Other Engineering Projects.
 An over view of construction aspects of different types of engineering projects, e.g. buildings, retaining structures, bridges
 Construction specification
 Common defects in building construction their causes and remedial measures
Lab
 Architectural Drawings, Structural Drawings, Plumbing and Electrical Work.
 Computer Aided Drawing (AutoCAD)
General and basic know how related to computer aided drafting, e.g., coordinate system, drawing setup procedure, basic draw commands, basic edit commands; Layers, creating test and defining styles options, block and drawing import/export options; Cross hatching, save and plot (2D) and isometric drawings. Use of Auto CAD in drawing plans, elevation and section of single and doublestorey buildings

 INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS:
 Definition of structure, types of structures: pin jointed and rigid jointed. Types of structural members. Types of beams, supports and loads. Stability of structures. Redundancy. Determinate and indeterminate structures, Degree of indeterminacy. Sign conventions for bending moment and shear force etc.
 ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE RIGID JOINTED PLANE FRAMES:
 Definition. Analysis of determinate frames.
 ANALYSIS OF DETERMINATE PLANE TRUSSES:
 Definition and common types of trusses. Classification of coplanar trusses. Methods of analysis of trusses; Method of joints, Method of sections, Graphical method.
 ROTATIONS AND DEFLECTIONS:
 Deflection diagrams and elastic curves. Castigiano’s theorem for trusses beams and frames. Unit load method. Theorem of virtual work for trusses beams and frames.
 ARCHES:
 Definition. Linear arch. Eddy’s theorem. Three hinged parabolic and circular arch. Bending Moment and shear force diagrams. Influence lines for shear, thrust and moment.
 INFLUENCE LINES:
 Definition. Influence lines for statically determinate beams and paneled girders.
 Influence lines for reaction, shear and bending moment of statically determinate beams and paneled girders. Influence lines for axial forces in trusses. Influence lines for composite structures.
 TRAVELLING LOADS:
 Maximum bending moment and shear force at any section. Criterion for maximum moment and shear.
 Absolute maximum bending moment.
 CABLES AND SUSPENSION BRIDGES:
 Cables. Stiffened suspension bridges with three hinged stiffening girders.
 Shear force and bending moment diagrams.
 THREE MOMENT EQUATION:
 Derivation of 3moment equation. Application of 3moment equation to the analysis of indeterminate beams
Labs
 Demonstration of various types of structures and supports.
 Demonstrate the stability of structures using model structures.
 Determination of the horizontal thrust and maximum bending moment in a three hinged parabolic arches.
 Determination of the horizontal thrust and maximum bending moment in a two hinged parabolic arches.
 Determination of the deflections and rotations in overhanging beams.
 Demonstration of influence line
 Investigation of the buckling struts
 Determination of shear cente

Recommended Books
 Wang, C.K. Intermediate Structural Analysis, McGraw Hill
 West, H.H. Analysis of Structures, John Wiley & Sons.
 Hibbeler, R.C. Structural Analysis, Prentice Hall.

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Town Planning & Architecture

Architecture

Historical Development

General introduction to history of architecture; Emergence/Development of Islamic Architechure.
 Influences
 Geographical, climatic, religious, social, historical.
 Principles
 Truth or purpose & beauty.
 Qualities
 Strength, vitality, grace, breadth and scale.
 Factors
 Proportion, color and balance.
 Use of Materials
 Stone, wood, metals, concrete, composites, ceramics.
 General Treatment to Plan of Buildings
 Walls and their construction; Openings and their position, character and shape; Roofs and their development and employment; Columns and their position, form and decoration; Molding and their form decoration, Ornament as applied to any buildings.
 Town Planning Definitions
 Trends in urban growth; Objectives of town planning; Modern planning in Pakistan and abroad.
 Preliminary Studies
 Study of natural resources, economic resources, legal and administrative problems, civic surveys and preparation of relevant maps.
 Land Use Patterns
 Various theories of land use pattern. Location of Parks and recreation facilities, public and semipublic buildings, civic centers, commercial centers, local shopping centers, public schools, industry & residential areas.
 Street Patterns
 Lay out of street, road crossing & lighting; Community planning
 City Extensions
 Sub Urban development, Neighborhood Units, Satellite Town and Garden City
 Urban Planning
 Issues related to inner city urban design and emergence/up gradation of squatter settlements.
 Introduction to Urban & Regional Planning using GIS

Recommended Books
 Snyter, J.C. Introduction to Urban Planning, Milwaukee McGraw Hill Book Co
 Fletcher, S.B. A History of Architecture. The Athlone Press.

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Town Plannig Lectures  Coming Soon

Mechanical Technology
 Basics of Thermodynamics
 Thermodynamic systems,
 Laws of thermodynamics,
 Laws of perfect gases
 Energy equation
 Internal Energy, Enthalpy and entropy of the working fluids
 Prime Movers:
 Internal combustion engines: type, working principle, cycle operation and performance,
 Steam Engines
 Steam Turbines
 Aircompressors
 AirConditioning:
 Introduction to Airconditioning and refrigeration. Heating and cooling load and its calculations, comfort chart, outline of AC systems
Lab
 Practical # 1: To study the different components of petrol engine.
 Practical # 2: To study the cooling system of automobile engine.
 Practical # 3: To study the lubrication system of automobile engine.
 Practical # 4: To study the ignition system of automobile engine.
 Practical # 5: To study the fuel system of automobile engine.
 Practical # 6: To study the airintake system of automobile engine.
 Practical # 7: To study the 2Stroke Reciprocating Engine.
 Practical # 8: To study the vapor compression system.
 Practical # 9: To study different components of refrigeration and airconditioning system.
 Practical # 10: The layout of boiler room.
 Practical # 11: To study the boiler of the steam engine power plant.
 Practical # 12: To study the steam Engine of the steam engine power plant.
 Practical # 13: To study the turbine of the steam engine power plant.
 Practical # 14: To study the condenser of steam engine power plant.


Ordinary Differential Equations:
Basic concepts of ordinary differential equation, General and particular solutions, Initial and boundary conditions, Linear and nonlinear differential equations, Solution of first order differential equation by separable variables and its applications in our daily life situations, The techniques like change of variable, homogeneous, nonhomogeneous, exact, nonexact, linear and nonlinear Bernoulli could be used in case of complications. Solution of second order differential equation by theory of operators and its applications as forced and free oscillations, The extension of second order solution criteria to higher order differential equations, Solution of the system of differential equations by theory of operators and its applications in our daily life situations.
Partial Differential Equations:
Basic concepts, Linear and nonlinear p.d.equations, Quasi linear and Quasi nonlinear p.d.equations, Homogeneous and nonhomogeneous p.d.equations, Solutions of p.d.equations, Boundary and initial conditions as Dirichlet condition, Neumann condition, Robbins/Mixed condition, Classification of p.d.equations as Elliptic, Parabolic and Hyperbolic.
Analytic solution by separation of variables of the SteadyState TwoDimensional Heat equation/Laplace equation and UnsteadyState OneDimensional Heat equation/Diffusion equation with homogeneous and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. D'Alembert's solution of TwoDimensional Wave equation with homogeneous and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions.
Fourier Series:
Periodic waveforms and their fourier representations, Calculating a fourier series, Fourier series of odd and even functions, Half range fourier series, Fourier series solution for the above p.d.equations.

Recommended Books
 Kreyszig, E.Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Wayne and Erson.
 Abell & Braselton, Brooks /Cole, Modern Differential Equations, Second edition

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Download Kreszig Solution
Differential Equations Solutions

 Introduction to fluid Mechanics & its classification.
 History of fluid Mechanics
 Application of Fluid mechanics in Civil Engineering.
 Distinction between solids and fluids.
 Physical Properties of Fluids:
 Density, Specific weight, Specific Volume, Specific gravity, Viscosity.
 Newton’s Law of viscosity. Surface tension. Compressibility of fluids.
 Fluid Statics:
 Static pressure, Pressure height relationship, absolute and gauge pressure,
 Measurement of Pressure, Barometer, Bourdon gauge, Pizometer tube, simple and differential manometer, Basic principal of various pressure measuring instruments.
 Forces on submerged plane and curved bodies. Buoyancy and Stability of submerged and floating bodies.
 Fluid Kinematics:
 Basics Concept about steady and unsteady flow, Laminar and Turbulent flow, Path lines, stream line, stream tube, uniform and non uniform flow.
 Basic Equations:
 Continuity Equation, Energy Equation and Momentum Equation.
 Application of Energy Equation and Continuity Equation to incompressible fluids.
 Fluid Measurement:
 Venturimeter, Orifices, Mouth pieces and Nozzles, pitot tube, Weirs and Notches.
 Flow through Pipes:
 Laminar Flow through pipes, Darcy’s Weisbach equation for flow through pipes,
 Hydraulic and Energy gradient lines, Losses in Pipe lines. Transmission of Energy through Pipes
 Flow through Open Channel:
 Uniform flow through open channels. Chezy’s and Manning’s formula for uniform Flow through open channels. Most efficient cross section of open channel.
Labs
 Demonstration of various parts of Hydraulic Bench.
 Experimental Study of laminar and turbulent Flow.
 Experimental Study of tube gauges and Dead weight pressure gauges.
 Calibration of Orifices by Various Methods.
 Calibration of venturimeter.
 Calibration of Rectangular and Triangular Notch.
 Verification of Bernoulli’s theorem.
 Determination of Metacentric height.
 Study of Various losses through Piping arrangements.

Recommended Books
 Robert L.Daughetn, Joseph B. Franzini, Fluid Mechanics with Engineering applications
 E.H.Lewitt, Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics

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Hydraulics & Fluid Mechanics

 Introduction
 Surveying instruments; chains, tapes, steel bands, their types & uses.
 Chain Surveying
 Ranging & Chaining of Survey lines. Field work & Plotting of Chain survey
 Compass Surveying
 Prismatic Compass& Surveyor compass
 Uses, Bearings, Local attraction, Fieldwork & Plotting.
 Plane Table Surveying
 Parts and accessories. Methods of surveying. Twopoint and threepoint problems.
 Leveling
 General principle. Types of levels and their temporary and permanent adjustments. Methods of levelling. Reduction of levels, Precise levelling and Trigonometric Leveling.
 Theodolite.
Types and uses of theodolites. Temporary and permanent adjustments. Measurement of horizontal and vertical angles.
 Tacheometrical surveying
 Methods of tacheometrical surveying. Field work and computation

Traversing

Traversing with prismatic compass, theodolite and plane table, computations and adjustments of traverse, transformation of Coordinates

Omitted Measurements

Calculation of Areas and Volumes
 Earthwork calculations. D.M.D. method, Simpson rule and trapezoidal rule.
Labs
 Practice on measurement of distances and introduction to measuring instruments
 Chain Surveying and plotting
 Compass Traversing
 Plane Table by methods of radiations and Intersections
 Two Points Problem
 Three Points Problem
 Level adjustments by twopeg method.
 Profile and CrossSectioning
 Theodolite traversing

Recommended Books
 Kavanash,B. Surveying principles and Application, Prentice Hall
 Irvine, W. Surveying for Construction, McGraw Hill.
 Davis, R.E. Surveying Theory and Practice, McGraw Hill

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Engineering Surveying

 Basic Concepts
 Introduction to Engineering Economics
 Time Value of Money
 Different Methods of Analysis (Present Worth Analysis, Annual Worth Analysis etc.)
 Concept of Internal Rate of Return & Its use in Engineering Projects
 Various Types of Costs (Maintenance, Repair, Other Overhead Costs etc. ) & Benefits & Its Use in Engineering Projects
 Economical Life of Construction Equipment
 Inflation
 Depreciation & Its Types
 Cost Escalation
 Introduction to Break Even Analysis & Its Application to Engineering Project
 Sensitivity Analysis
 Demand and Supply Analysis
 Theory of Pricing & Theory of Production and Laws of Return
 Funding, Funding Agencies and Planning Commission
 Types of Business Organizations
 Labor problems, Labor Organization, Prevention and Settlement of Disputes

Recommended Books
 Donald G. Newman
 E.Peul Degarmo

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Engineering Economics Lecture Notes

 Method of Consistent Deformation:
 Analysis of statically indeterminate beams, frames and trusses. Castigliano's second theorem (Method of least work).
 Slope Deflection Method
 Derivation of equation, Analysis of continuous beams and portal frames without joint movement. Analysis of continuous beams and portal frames due to yielding of supports. Analysis of portal frames with joint movement. Analysis of closed frames and multistory portal frames.
 Moment Distribution Method
 Concept, Distribution and carry over factors, Analysis of continuous beams and portal frames without joint movement. Analysis of continuous beams and portal frames due to yielding of supports. Analysis of continuous beams and portal frames with joint movement. Analysis of multistory portal frames.
 Plastic Analysis
 Elastic versus Plastic Analysis in Steel Design, Upper & Lower Bound Theorems, Statical Moment & Mechanism Methods. Design of Beams, Propped Cantilever, Fixed ended & Continuous beams & frames, Design Examples
 Analysis of Arches
 Analysis of two hinged circular and parabolic arches with supports at different levels.
 Influence Lines for Indeterminate Beams
 Use of Clark Maxwell and Betti’s Theorm, Law of Reciprocal Deflections, Influence lines for moment and reactions in proposed cantilevers. Influence lines for support reaction of two and three span continuous beams. Influence lines for Shear Force and Bending Moment at any section of the beam.

Recommended Books
 Wang, C.K. Intermediate Structural Analysis, McGraw Hill.
 West, H.H. Analysis of Structures, John Wiley 7 Sons.
 Hibbeler, R.C. Structural Analysis, Prentice Hall.

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Numerical Analysis
 Interpolation and extrapolation;
 Finite differences, forward, backward and central differences and its operators form, Linear and higher order interpolating polynomials, Newton's Gregory forward & backward difference interpolation formulas and its utilization as extrapolation, Lagrange’s interpolation, Numerical differentiation based on differences,
 Numerical integration;
 Trapezoidal and Simpson's approximations, Romberg integration process,
 Numerical Solution of nonlinear equations;
 Bracketing and iteration methods and its applications as multiple root methods,
 Direct solution of the system of linear equations;
 Gausselimination, Direct and indirect factorization, symmetric factorization, tridiagonal factorization, Iterative methods like Jacobi's iteration and GaussSeidel iteration,
 Numerical solution of initial value problems;
 SingleStep methods and its comparison with Taylor's series expansion, MultiStep methods, Higher order differential equations, System of differential equations,
 Numerical solution of linear and nonlinear boundary value problems.


Soil Formation
 Soil and its constituents, weathering of rocks and types of soils. Description and Identification of soil (VisualManual Procedure), Mineralogy of soil solids.
 Physical Properties
 Water content, void ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, specific gravity, unit Weight and their determination, Atterberg limits, sieve analysis, hydrometer and Pipette analysis, Stoke’s law, grain size distribution.
 Soil Classification Grain size classification, Bureau of soils,. M.I.T., Unified, AASHTO and ASTM Classification systems. Textural Classification by triangular chart, united soil classification system, AASHTO soil classifications.
 Permeability and Seepage
 Definition, Hydraulic gradient, Darcy's Law, Factors affecting permeability, Permeability of stratified soils, Laboratory and field determination of coefficient of permeability.
 Seepage force, quick sand condition, flow nets, boundary conditions, graphical method of flow net construction, determination of quantity of seepage, two dimensional flow, Laplace Equation, seepage through earth dams, design of filters
 Compaction
 Definition, Compaction fundamentals, Moisture density relationships,
 Standard Proctor test and modified AASHO test for compaction, Factors affecting compaction, Compaction equipment, properties and structure of compacted soils, Specifications, field control and measurement of insitu density, CBR test.
 Vertical stresses in soils
 Definition, stresses caused by self weight of soil, Geostatic stresses, stresses caused by point loads and uniformly distributed loads: Boussinesq and Westerqaard theories, Pressure bulb, stress distribution diagram on horizontal and vertical planes; stress at a point outside loaded area, Newmark’s charts and 2:1 Method
 Soil Exploration
 Importance of soil exploration, soil exploration methods; probing, test trenches and pits, auger boring, wash boring, rotary drilling, Percussion drilling and geophysical methods, soil samples, Disturbed and undisturbed samples, Insitu tests (SPT, CPT and PLT)
 Introduction of related Software
Labs
 Identification of Soil (Visual Manual Procedure)
 Determination of Moisture content of soil
 Determination of specific gravity of soil
 Determination of liquid limit of soil
 Grainsize analysis of soil (including both mechanical and hydrometer analysis)
 Determination of Plastic limit and Plasticity Index of soil
 Determination of shrinkage limit of soil
 Classification of soil according to AASHTO and USCS
 Modified/Proctor Compaction Test
 Constant Head Permeability test (Granular Soil)
 Falling Head Permeability (Granular and Fine grained soils)

Recommended Books
 An Introductoin to Mechanics of Soils and Foundation by “John Atkinson”
 Soil Mechanics by R.F.Craig
 Principles of Geotechnical Engineering by Braja M. Das.

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