Professional Ethics for Engineers - Page 2
Folkways are the recognized ways of behavior and acting in society, which arise spontaneously within a group to meet the problems of social living. They are unconscious and uncoordinated adjustments and ordinary conventions of everyday life. For instance the rules of eating and drinking, meeting and departing, types of dressing, ceremonies and rituals for different situations and the manners and etiquette of institutional situations such as family, school, market masque etc. As they are ordinary conventions of everyday life their violation and the punishment on them is unwritten. They in fact unconsciously appear and disappear in society
Mores are strong norms that are regarded as morally significant, and their violation unlike folkways is considered a serious matter. Their origin like folkways, however, is social interaction. Mores determines that item in society holds such position and holds such value. The difference between folkways and mores vary only in their degree of intensity. Wearing cloths for instance are mores and the cloths of different styles are folkways-. Although Informal, their violation creates a serious threat to social order. For instance, entering one's house without permission, contemptuous use of religious symbols, desecration of the national flag etc. all brings a strong social reaction. Some norms particularly mores are encoded in law.
A rule that has been formally enacted by a political authority and backed by the power of the state. Law is the formal source of social control. It is also a custom hut refined according to the social situation. Law is the guardian of the highest values (life, honor, properly) of society. The purpose of all the different means of social control is a social process by which (lie individual is made group responsive, and by which social organization is built and maintained. Most social control, however, does not have to be exercised through the direct influence of other people. We exercise it ourselves, internally. Growing up in society involves the internalization of norms — the unconscious process of absorbing cultural norms. We think and act in ways that are to great extent shaped by the society we live in.
The social inter dependencies, organized kinship, neighborhood and other forms of affiliations provide ties on which individuals count for goods, services and emotionally significant symbols of permanence, particularly at times of crises and deprivation. This is what we call society or social living. This kind of support provides a minimal sense of long-term security, which most individuals need. The social structure publicly defines virtue and vice establishes a predictable moral environment and provides unambiguous conditions for interpersonal trust and positive self-regard. Tin's order gives the individual both the satisfaction of living a good life according to community standards and the comfort of being able to trust others in the community.
Relationships define the purpose of adult activities, motivating individuals to direct their efforts towards the benefits of others (their family), towards the approval; of those whom they respect (elders), and toward recognition within groups they value (their community). It benefits the individual by setting personal achievements in a collective context that gives it additional meanings. Thus personal security, community trusts, positive self-regard and group morale are all benefits possible from social linkages, through the support, structure and motivation they provide for individuals of a given society. Their importance can be assessed by imagining life without them.
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Social Living In the context of Human behavior