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Design, Maintenance, Types & Components of Hydraulic Structures

Definition of Hydraulic Structures:

Hydraulic structures are anything that can be used to divert, restrict, stop, or otherwise manage the natural flow of water. They can be made from materials ranging from large rock and concrete to obscure items such as wooden timbers or tree trunks.

A dam, for instance, is a type of hydraulic structure used to hold water in a reservoir as potential energy, just as a weir is a type of hydraulic structure which can be used to pool water for irrigation, establish control of the bed (grade control) or, as a new innovative technique, to divert flow away from eroding banks or into diversion channels for flood control.

OR

A hydraulic structure is a structure submerged or partially submerged in any body of water, which disrupts the natural flow of water. They can be used to divert, disrupt or completely stop the flow. An example of a hydraulic structure would be a dam, which slows the normal flow rate of river in order to power turbines.A hydraulic structure can be built in rivers, a sea, or any body of water where there is a need for a change in the natural flow of water.

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Types of Headworks

  1. Storage headwork
  2. Diversion headwork

Location of Headworks

  1. Rocky stage
  2. Sub mountainous / boulder stage
  3. Alluvial plan

The two main types of weirs are:

  1. Gravity weir
  2. Non Gravity weir

Main Components of a weir

Causes of Failure of weir | Remedies

Main Components of a Barrage

Causes of Failure of Barrages | Remedies

Site selection for barrage | Barrage Width | Barrage Design

Assumptions

Design Criteria

Limitation of Bligh's Theory

Lane's Weighted Creep Theory

Types of regulators

  1. Still pond regulation
  2. Open flow regulation
  3. Silt control devices
  4. Installing silt excluders
  5. Silt extractor or silt ejector:

Khosla and his associates took into account the flow pattern below the impermeable base of hydraulic structure to calculate uplift pressure and exit gradient.

After studying a lot of dam failure constructed based on Bligh’s theory, Khosla came out with the following;

Method of independent variable

Types of regulators

  1. Auiducts
  2. Siphon Aqueducts
  3. Super Passage
  4. Canal Siphon

Types of regulators

  1. Still pond regulation
  2. Open flow regulation
  3. Silt control devices
  4. Installing silt excluders
  5. Silt extractor or silt ejector:

Effects:

A factor which occasionally affects stilling basin operation is the slope of the chute upstream from the basin. The foregoing experimentation was sufficiently extensive to shed some light on this factor. The tests showed that the slope of chute upstream from the stilling basin was unimportant, as far as jump performance was concerned, provided the velocity distribution in the jet entering the jump was reasonably uniform.

Recommendations:

Following are some factors affecting site selection for Cross drainage works:

  1. Relative levels and discharges
  2. Performance
  3. Size of drainage
  4. Cost of earthwork
  5. Provision of road
  6. Foundation

[Read More]

  1. Durability
  2. Optimization
  3. Flow closure
  4. Maintenance and Materials..... read more [Read More]

Weir and Intake Requirements of Micro Hydel Power Systems

  1. Choice of Site
  2. Power Requirements
  3. Floods
  4. Clogging..... read more [Read More]

Hydropower is the most widely used renewable energy technology. It is a mature technology and its strengths and weaknesses are equally well understood. Advantages and disadvantages of hydropower schemes can be listed in terms of economic, social and environmental aspects.

Economic Aspects

Hydropower plants can provide peak load service. Their fast response times enable them to meet sudden fluctuations in demand and this improves electricity grid stability and reliability. ..... read more [Read More]

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