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Civil Engineering Land Surveying Basics
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Land Surveying Class LecturesSurvey Class Lecture Notes Free Download

The history of surveying started with plane surveying when the first line was measured. Today the land surveying basics are the same but the instruments and technology has changed. The surveying equipments used today are much more different than the simple surveying instruments in the past. The land surveying methods too have changed and the surveyor uses more advanced tools and techniques in Land survey.

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Civil Surveying - Topographic Survey

Circular Curves Circular Curves - Types, Components & Setting Out Curvature & RefractionCurvature & Refraction

Civil Engineering survey is based on measuring, recording and drawing to scale the physical features on the surface of the earth. For different survey sites, different tools and survey equipment is used. The surveyor uses instruments for measuring, a field book for recording and nowadays surveying softwares for plotting and drawing to scale the site features

Maintenance of Surveying Equipment

Distance Measurement Equipment

The earth appears to “fall away” with distance. The curved shape of the earth means that the level surface through the telescope will depart from the horizontal plane through the telescope as the line of sight proceeds to the horizon.

Refraction is largely a function of atmospheric pressure and temperature gradients, which may cause the bending to be up or down by extremely variable amounts.

Surveying as a Career

Surveying Equipment

Errors in Surveying & Levelling Geodetic Surveying

Geodetic or trigonometrically surveying takes into account the curvature of earth Since very extensive areas and very large distances are involved. In geodic surveying highly refined instruments and methods are used. Geodetic work is undertaken by the state agency e.g. survey of Pakistan undertaken by the state agency... read more [Read More]

Baseline Measurement - Equipments & Methods

Corrections for Baseline Measurement

Steps for How to do Triangulation

Classification of Triangulation System

Errors in Surveying & Levelling Photographic Surveying Errors in Surveying & Levelling Hydrographic Surveying

Photogrammetry may be divided into two classes.

  • Terrestrial or ground photogrammetery.
  • Aerial photogrammetry

In terrestrial photogrammetry maps are prepared from ground photographs. In aerial photogrammetry maps are produced from air photographs... read more [Read More]

How to Photogrammetry | Tunnel Survey | Scale Distortion in Photos

It is the branch of surveying which deals with any body of still or running water such as a lake, harbor, stream or river. Hydrographic surveys are used to define shore line and under water features... read more [Read More]

River Survey

Sounding - Equipments and Methods of Carrying out Sounding

Horizontal & Vertical Controls

Small Plane Table Plane Table Surveying Errors in Surveying & Levelling Errors in Surveying & Levelling

Methods of Plane Table Survey:

  1. Intersection Method
  2. Radiation Method

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Following are the few errors encountered in surveying and levelling.... read more [Read More]

  1. Instrumental Errors
  2. Collimation Error
  3. Error due to Curvature & Refraction
  4. Other Errors
Surveying Equipment Maintenance of Surveying Equipment Circular Curves Applications of Surveying in Career

Surveying equipment is being used under most stressful conditions. The equipment is exposed to extreme weather conditions, used in dusty construction areas and is subject to bumpy transportation. Proper care in the method by which equipment is used, stored, transported, and adjusted is a major factor in the successful completion of the more [Read More]

The basic principles of surveying have changed little over the ages, but the tools used by surveyors have evolved tremendously. Engineering, especial civil engineering depends heavily on surveyors. When ever there are roads, railways, reservoir, dams, retaining walls, bridges, or residential area to be built, surveyors are involved.... read more [Read More]

Types of Surveying | Types of Curves

Compound Curves Compound Curves  

Combination of two or more simple circular curves of different radius having their curvature in the same direction. Essentially, a compound curve consists of two curves that are joined at a point of tangency and are located on the same side of a common tangent.

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