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Varnishes, Plaster & Distempers



Varnishes are more or less transparent liquids which are used to provide a protective surface coating in much the same way as paints do” At the same time they allow the original surface to show but add a lustrous and glossy finish to it.

All varnishes have basically the same components as paints.

Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials. Varnish is traditionally a combination of a drying oil, a resin, and a thinner or solvent.

Varnish finishes are usually glossy but may be designed to produce satin or semi-gloss sheens by the addition of "flatting" agents.

Types of varnishes

  1. Natural resin varnishes:

Body made from natural resin obtained from certain trees. Natural resin obtained from living trees or from fossils(which are superior) Vehicle in varnish is the same as used in oil-based paint. Resins dissolved in oil ► mixture heated to temperature (500-600OF) depending on the amount of gloss required. Oil and natural resin varnish ►OLEO RESINOUS varnish. Thinner and dryers used in varnish are the same as used in oil based paints

  1. Modified natural-resin varnishes:

Made from natural resin ► altered by chemical action. Common resin is heat treated with glycerin to form a gum. This gum is treated as the body for the varnish. Less expensive varnish than the oleo resinous varnish

  1. Synthetic resin varnish:

Synthetic varnish produced by plastic industry

Chemicals used include nitrocellulose, amino resins, silicon etc

Vehicle most often the same as for oleo resinous varnish

Coal tar derivatives may be used as thinners

Dryer is also the same as for other types of varnishes

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Paints, Varnishes & Engineering Materials Answers


  1. Long oil varnish:

Long oil contain 40 to 100 gal of oil per 100 lbs of resin

Takes longer time to dry

Moderate gloss

Marine and spar varnish belongs to this group

Tung oil used ►impervious to water

  1. Medium oil varnish:

Medium-oil contain 12 to 40 gal of oil per 100 lbs of resin

They dry faster ► harder

Harder film than long-oil varnish but are not impervious to water

Floor varnish belongs to this group

  1. Short oil resins:

Short-oil contain 5 to 12 gal of oil per 100 lbs of resin. Dry rapidly ► form a hard, brittle film that withstand much rough usage. Polishing varnish belongs to this group

How to Varnish

Varnish Finish

Floor Varnish

Oil Varnish




Overall, it can be stated that the improved element performed better than the traditional element in the series of earthquake simulations. This statement is based on an assessment of the risk of causing injury posed by each structure. The walls of the traditional corners were independent and unstable. Any additional force, such as another tremor or a strong wind or impact, could cause either wall to topple over, in an inward or outward direction. This represents an unacceptable level of risk. These buildings are one of the most deficient building systems from earthquake-resistance point of view. The main deficiencies include excessive wall thickness, absence of any connection between the two withes of the wall, and use of round stones (instead of shaped ones).


They are paints used for the treatment of masonry walls. Water instead of oil is used as a vehicle► known as water-paint too. Powdered white chalk and glue boiled in water are mixed. Usually colored by mixing different pigments. All Distempers mixed with water only before being used. Distemper affected by weathering condition and takes off if washed ►to be used only in interior works. Cheap, durable and easy interior finish. Should be applied on clean and dry surface.

Related Pages
Related Pages
Composition of paints Preparation and applications of paints
Properties of paints Tests on paints
How to paint When to paint
Varnishes, Plasters and distempers Qualities of a good paint
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