To survey any site, usually a remote and human inaccessible site.
To determine boundaries of buildings and structures
Deﬁning transportation routes, or an electricity distribution network.
In the area of transportation the GIS provides the ability to model individual road elements and intersections and to analyze routes between any two points within an urban street network.
Emergency services planning</strong> to identify the shortest path to a hospital or to examine the average response time to a call to the ﬁre department.
The geographic information system provides the ability to model utility networks, such as water supply system, power, and telecommunications system
In customer support to respond to service failure
In short GIS is used in civil engineering for urban planning, route optimization, public utility network management, demography, cartography, agriculture, natural resources administration, coastal monitoring, fire and epidemics control.
To compare complex data of different locations e.g earthquake record of different areas.
For more information Application of GIS in Civil Engineering