# Structural Engineering

Structure Engineering is the most major field in Civil Engineering. In this field engineers design structures, analyze their stability by the use of softwares or manual calculations and then construct them. In the previous five decades structural engineering has evolved to be an interesting and important field, It includes the study of dynamics of a structure, its load capacity, design and economy. Due to an increase in the demand of earthquake-proof buildings, the importance of structural engineers has also come to light.

Structural engineering is a field of engineering, more appropriately, civil engineering; It deals with the analysis and design of structures. Structural engineering is the design of structural support systems for buildings, bridges, earthworks, and industrial structures. This branch of engineering focuses on supporting a load safely, and relies on mathematical and Physical concepts for the design of the supporting structures. Structural engineers can design machines, cranes, vehicles and even other non building structures.

Structural engineering is a field of varied and complex tasks. Structural engineers combine simple and basic structural elements to build up complex structural systems. but the main objective is always safety, and to minimize the risk of collapse. Though aesthetics can also be a priority in some cases.

Many of the designs for concrete buildings today are specifically meant to be earthquake and hurricane-resistant. There are also other provisions that are made for especially important rural structures, such as design details that help to prevent against fires or bombs. This way the structure of the building will not simply fall apart if something unexpected happens. Months of consideration goes into the designs of these buildings. The efficient use of funds and materials to achieve these structural goals is also a major concern.

## Lectures, Notes and ebooks of Structural Engineering

Structures, Definition, Types and Classification Post Tensioning in Concrete Slab

A type of structure formed by members in triangular form, the resulting figure is called a truss. In truss joints are pin connected and loads are applied at joints. No shear force & bending moment are produced. Only axial compression and axial tension is to be determined while analyzing a truss

## Structural Members

Those members that are interconnected in such a way so as to constitute a structure are called structural.... [Read More]

This can be defined as the method of applying compression force on concrete after it has been poured and cured.

## Introduction / Benefits

Introduction to Post tensioning and benefits of post tensioning in concrete slab.

Post-tensioning is a method of reinforcing (strengthening) concrete or other materials with high-strength steel strands rebars, typically referred to as tendons. It has the following benefits as compared to unbonded post tensioning..... [Read More]

Designing Coastal Structures

Coastal structures are the structures that are constructed near to the coastal areas for different purposes. Different types of coastal structures are constructed under different circumstances but the criteria to be used for the selection and design of specific type of coastal structure must be authentic and comply with the standards... [Read More]

There are a various set of criteria that need to be considered in the selection and design of coastal structures.

• Structural stability criteria
• Functional performance criteria
Minimum Steel Reincorcement Building Elements in a Reinforced Concrete Structure

The minimum amount of steel reinforcement is defined as that for which "peak load at first concrete cracking" and "ultimate load after steel yielding" are equal. In this way, any brittle behavior is avoided as well as any localized failure, if the member is not over-reinforced.

A minimum area of reinforcement is required to control the cracking, which occurs in the concrete due to temperature, shrinkage and creep. It enables cracking to be uniformly distributed and therefore minimizes individual crack width... [Read More]

• 1st Floor
• Basement Floor
• Basement Wall
• Column Bracket
• Column Capital
• Drop Panels
• Exterior Columns
• Flat Plate
• Flat Slab... [Read More]
Design of Precast Parabolic Channels Advantages of Prestressing

Methodology

• Measurement of Full supply level of the channel (FSL)
• Measurement of Bed level of channel
• Measurement of Full Supply Level at crest
• Measurement of Crest level of channel
• Measurement of FSL at RD 0+00
• Measurement of Bed level at 0+00

The prestressing of concrete has several advantages as compared to traditional reinforced concrete (RC) without prestressing. A fully prestressed concrete member is usually subjected to compression during service life. This rectifies several deficiencies of concrete. For each effect, benefits are.... [Read More]

Limitations of Prestressing:

Although prestressing has advantages, some aspects need ..... [Read More]

Load Capacity and Demand Applications of Surveying in Career

Demand refers to all external actions (self weight) gravity, wind, earthquake, snow all are external actions. If differential settlement occurs stresses are induced in structure. Internal stresses are also called load effects.

Overall ability of a structure to carry an imposed demand is called. [Read More]

The basic principles of surveying have changed little over the ages, but the tools used by surveyors have evolved tremendously. Engineering, especial civil engineering depends heavily on surveyors. When ever there are roads, railways, reservoir, dams, retaining walls, bridges, or residential area to be built, surveyors are involved.... [Read More]

Types of Surveying