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Feb 26, 2016 / Haseeb Jamal -

5 Travel Myths You Need to Stop Believing Right Now

Feb 26, 2016 / Haseeb Jamal -

Canal Comes Alive with Lighted Boat Parade.

Sources of Drinking Water

Streams, rivers and lakes are the major sources of surface waters. Usually these sources fulfill the requirements of municipal supplies. Water in these sources originates partly from groundwater outflows and partly from rainwater which flows over the terrestrial areas into the surface water bodies. Outflows from groundwater brings in, the dissolved solids.

Methods of Disinfection of Water

In the water treatment processes, pathogens & other organisms can be partly physically eliminated through coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, & filtration, in addition to the natural die-off. After filtration, to ensure pathogen free water, the chemical addition of chlorine (so called chlorination), rightly or wrongly, is most widely used for disinfection of drinking water

Chemical Characteristics of Sewage - BOD, COD, Nutrients, DO

In sanitary sewage about 75 % of suspended solids and 40% of filterable solids are organic. These solids are derived from both animals, plant and humans. Organic compounds usually consist of C; H; O; N along with S; P and Iron. The organic substances found in sewage are Protein (40-60%); Carbohydrates (25-50%), fats and oils (10%). Along with these organic

Physical Characteristics of Sewage

Following are the detailed physical characteristics of Sewage: Temperature, Color, Odor, Solids, Total Solids, Total suspended Solids, Fixed and Volatile Solids. Oxygen is less soluble in warm water, while some species of aquatic life population increases with temperature causing more demand of oxygen and result in depletion of dissolved oxygen in summer.

Types of Grit Chambers

Check the SLR (1200-1700 m3/m2-day) and Vs (≥ 0.01 m/sec). Grit produced is about 1.5 ft3/ML of wastewater flow. Add to depth {1ft FB + grit}... Assume a depth (D = 08-15 ft), determine the surface area of the basin. And check the SLR (1200-1700 m3/m2-day)... The amount of grit produced is about 1.5 ft3/ML of wastewater flow. Add suitable depth from

Advantages & Disadvantages of Comminutors

Elimination of extra steps and problems involved in the excavation of the disposals of screening (screened material) Often difficult to dispose highly polluted screenings - In USA if buried, 6 inches of cover material should be used

Definitions in Waste Water Treatment

It is the measure of the settleability and compatibility of sludge and is made from a laboratory column setting test. The sludge volume index is defined as ‘the volume in mm occupied by 1 gm of sludge after it has settled for a specified period of time’ generally ranging from 20 min to 1 or 2 hr in a 1 – or 2-l cylinder.

What is the Composition of Wastewater?

A typical solids analysis of wastewater, of the total solids, 50% is dissolved, 50% suspended. Of the suspended solids, 50% will settle. Industrial activity changes the composition of wastewater, often introducing toxic substances such as chromium and cadmium from plating operations. The typical composition of wastewater based on strength. The important characteristics

Food to Microorganisms Ratio (F/M)

A parameter of organic loading rate in the design aerated sludge parameter in the design of Trickling Filter in organic loading rate = kg of BOD / m3-d

Uses & Design of Flow Equalization Tank

Flow equalization is method used to overcome the operational problems and flow rate variations to improve the performance of downstream processes and to reduce the size & cost of downstream treatment facilities. To prevent flow rate, temperature, and contaminant concentrations from varying widely, flow equalization is often used. Variations occur

To Measure COD of WasteWater using Open Reflux Method

KMn04 was used as oxidizing agent for many time pb with KMno4 was that different value of COD obtained due to strength change of KMno4. BOD value obtained greater than COD with KMno4 means KMno4 was not oxidizing all the substances.

Public Health Engineering

The public health engineering sector is responsible for the Collection of water, purification, transmission and distribution of water. A Public Health Engineer has to perform his job by calculating design flow, design population, design area and population density. Quality of the collected water is checked by physical and chemical tests on water and if the quantity is not

Population Forecasting Methods & Techniques

Population is one of the most important factors for design of the water systems, so it should be estimated, so as to know the increasing demand and ensure continuous supply to them. Population data is obtained by previous records and the rate of increase is found out and this used for further analysis, which may be by using the methods described below

Sectoral Consumption of Water

Domestic uses of water include the consumption of water for drinking, washing, cooking, toilets, livestock etc. the domestic average use per capita per day is 50 – 90 gallons (70 – 380 liters per capita per day).

Factors Affecting Selection of Water Source

The quantity of water available at the source must be sufficient to meet various demands and requirements of the design population during the entire design period. Plans should be made to bring water from other sources if the available water is insufficient. The water available at the source must not be toxic, poisonous or in anyway injurious to health. The impurities

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