Deprecated: Methods with the same name as their class will not be constructors in a future version of PHP; qa_layer_9_from_layer_php has a deprecated constructor in /home/abouaayt/public_html/aboutcivil/answers/qa-include/qa-base.php(720) : eval()'d code on line 3
of /home/abouaayt/public_html/aboutcivil/answers/qa-plugin/user-management/layer.php putting the curvature of the earth in to account how leveling is carried out? - Civil Engineering Technical Questions Answers - Ask a Civil Engineer
  • Register
0 votes
putting the curvature of the  earth in to account  how  leveling is carried out?

  • Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/abouaayt/public_html/aboutcivil/answers/qa-include/qa-base.php(720) : eval()'d code on line 12
in Surveying & Levelling by  
retagged by

2 Answers

+1 vote
 
Best answer

The formula for computing the combined effect of curvature and refraction is:

C + R = 0.021K2

Where C = correction for curvature

R = correction for refraction

K = sighting distance in thousands of feet

How to eliminate error due to Curvature and Refraction

  1. Proper field procedures (taking shorter shots and balancing shots) can practically reduce errors

  2. Wherever possible, staff readings should be kept at least 0.5 m above the ground,

  3. Using short observation distances (25 m) equalized for backsight and foresight

  4. Air below is denser than air above Air below is denser than air above, Line of sight is bent downward which Negates earth curvature error by 14%.

  5. Simultaneous Reciprocal Trigonometrical Heighting

  6. Observations made at each station at exactly the same time, cancels the effects of curvature and refraction

17yrs in the field of civil engineering as a land surveyor completing projects requiring dead nuts accuracy spanning tens of miles horizontally as well as hundreds of feet vertically using astonishingly precise instrumentation to calculate each known empirically definable variable including adjustments for thermal atmospheric refraction and optical refractory parallax , while maintaining tolerances as little as one one/hundredth of a foot.

Never have i visually observed, nor do my instruments indicate evidence of, and NEVER have i “adjusted” my collected observational field data or implemented any equation variable to account for a spherical geography.

The phenomenon asserting spherical global geography is not included as applied to engineering and construction in the physical world.

by  
selected by
0 votes
It is called Geodetic Survey..
by  

Related questions

0 votes
0 answers 71 views
71 views asked Jul 28, 2015 in Surveying & Levelling by mfby2k  
  • suveying

  • Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/abouaayt/public_html/aboutcivil/answers/qa-include/qa-base.php(720) : eval()'d code on line 12
  • levelling
+1 vote
0 answers 502 views
502 views asked Jul 29, 2015 in Surveying & Levelling by mfby2k  

    Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/abouaayt/public_html/aboutcivil/answers/qa-include/qa-base.php(720) : eval()'d code on line 12
  • suveying
0 votes
0 answers 148 views
148 views asked Jul 30, 2015 in Surveying & Levelling by mfby2k  

    Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/abouaayt/public_html/aboutcivil/answers/qa-include/qa-base.php(720) : eval()'d code on line 12
  • suveying

  • Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/abouaayt/public_html/aboutcivil/answers/qa-include/qa-base.php(720) : eval()'d code on line 12
  • civil
0 votes
0 answers 195 views
195 views asked Aug 18, 2015 in Surveying & Levelling by mfby2k  

    Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/abouaayt/public_html/aboutcivil/answers/qa-include/qa-base.php(720) : eval()'d code on line 12
  • levelling

  • Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/abouaayt/public_html/aboutcivil/answers/qa-include/qa-base.php(720) : eval()'d code on line 12
  • diagram
0 votes
1 answer 229 views
229 views asked Jul 28, 2015 in Surveying & Levelling by mfby2k  

    Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/abouaayt/public_html/aboutcivil/answers/qa-include/qa-base.php(720) : eval()'d code on line 12
  • surveying

  • Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/abouaayt/public_html/aboutcivil/answers/qa-include/qa-base.php(720) : eval()'d code on line 12
  • levelling
...