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What are the qualities of a good building stone? Discuss them.

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  1. Stone should be chemically inert (i.e it should not react with other substances, e.g water, sand etc)

  2. Stone must have the required strength and hardness (there is a difference between strength and hardness)

  3. Stone must be durable

  4. It must have resistance to fire

  5. Should be free from Bio-Deterioration

  6. A good construction stone must have an aesthetic appearance

  7. Susceptibility to being quarried in large sizes and availability

Selection of Stones for Building Construction

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General characteristics :- A good building stones should have following characteristics :-
Appearance :- The stone to be used for face work must have a uniform and pleasing colour.It must be free from cavities , cracks , flaws and patches of loose and soft material etc.
Strength :- A good building stone should have sufficient crushing strength to withstand the load of superstructure .In general ,it should not be less than 1000 kg /cm2
Hardness ,toughness and resistance to abrasion :-The stone to be used in stairs ,pavements ,as railway ballast or road metal must be sufficiently hard, tough and resistance to abrasion ,it must be able to resist wear and tear .
Durability :- A good building stone must be durable enough to resist the effect of weathering agencies e.g . Rain ,wind, temperature etc. It should have fine grained ,compact and crystalline structure.
Texture :- A good building stone should have a close grained and compact texture .
Seasoning :- The stone to be used for an important interior works should well seasoned . Presence of moisture makes the stone soft and it is liable to an early decay when used in structural works .  
Workability :- The stone to be used for ornamental carving and architectural appearance , should be easily and economically dressed.
Porosity :- A good building stone should be less porous . It should not absorb more then 5% of water .Any stone absorbing 10% of water should be rejected .
Resistance to fire :- A good building stone should be able to resist high temperature . Its mineral constitutes should have equal co-efficient of expansion .
Specific gravity :- The stone to be used on heavy engineering works ,docks ,harbours, gravity dams etc. must have high specific gravity . It varies from 2.4  to 2.8 .
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The properties of a stone that determine its fitness for construction purposes are durability, strength, hardness, density, and appearance. The quality of a stone is ascertained approximately from a study of its origin and chemical composition and from the results of tests and experiments.
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